OT550  Exodus to Exile

Biblical Theological Seminary

Winter Semester, 2007

Dr. J. Robert Vannoy

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

 

This course takes a close look at the deliverance of the children of Israel from bondage in Egypt, their establishment as God's covenant people at Mt. Sinai, and the ways in which the Israelites either embraced or rejected their covenantal obligations from the time they left Mt. Sinai (1400-1200 B.C) until they returned from exile at about 500 BC.  The focus of classroom discussion will be on the narrative material of the Pentateuch, and the books of Joshua, Judges and 1, 2 Samuel.  Included in class discussion and outside assignments is a look at how one is to find meaning for today from Old Testament historical narratives.  Are these narratives to be understood primarily as providing illustrations from the lives of Old Testament rogues or saints of either ungodly or godly behavior that God's people today should either shun or imitate?  Or are these narratives more properly understood as intended to describe how God was at work in the Old Testament period to bring to pass his great plan of redemption?  Or is it some combination of both these perspectives?  How does one’s point of view on these questions affect the way in which contemporary meaning and value is found Old Testament narrative?  While part of the intent of the course is simply familiarization with the content of Old Testament historical narratives and their historical setting in the ancient world, including the light that archaeological findings throw on their literary, historical and social context, the overriding purpose of the course is to discern the theological perspective that comes to expression in some of the greatest narrative literature ever written. The early history of Israel provides important background for the understanding the nature of God’s redemptive work on behalf of his people.  This course provides a survey of Israel’s history as recorded in Exodus through 2 Kings, with special attention given to selected periods.  The course also addresses the hermeneutics of biblical narrative.  Prerequisite: Genesis: Foundations in Biblical History.  Three hours.

 

METHOD OF THE COURSE

 

1.         Class will meet on Monday afternoons at 4:30-7:15 P.M.  As a 3 credit hour course, approximately 9 hours of work will be required per week (1 hour in class, 2 hours outside class per credit hour).

 

2.         The reading assignments are an important part of the course.  Lectures are designed to supplement rather than duplicate material covered in the readings.  A reading assignment is given each week (see the assignment schedule) with the possibility of a quiz on each due date (limited to readings from E. Merrill).  It is advisable to read the assigned material carefully, taking good notes while reading.  Study the notes for the quizzes; review the notes for the mid-term and final exams.  Knowledge of factual information as well as understanding of concepts will be required.

 

3.         Lectures will center on the Exodus and Sinai materials (1,2 Kings, for example, will not be addressed until the last class and then only very briefly) along with focus on some specific interpretive issues rather than attempting to cover in superficial survey fashion the entire span of OT history.  For this reason a great deal of the content of the course is dependent on the reading assignments.

 

4.         Grading:

 

1/3       Quizzes on reading and written work on Hebrew narrative.  Quizzes may not be made up if missed unless due to sickness or extreme emergency.

 

1/3       Mid-term exam (primarily on lectures, but also some questions from assigned readings).

 

1/3       Final exam (also primarily on lectures, but with some questions from assigned readings.

 

5.         Required texts:

 

E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests:  A History of Old Testament Israel. 

Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987.

 

                        Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text.  Chapter 9,

“Preaching Hebrew Narratives,” Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988,

pp. 188-227.

 

Sidney Greidanus, “Redemptive History and Preaching,” Pro Rege 19/2

(1990) 9-18.

 

Sidney Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament, Chapter 7,

“Steps from Old Testament Text to Christocentric Sermon.”  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999, pp. 279-292.

 

The historical books of the Old Testament (Exodus - Nehemiah)

 

Reference will be made to numerous other books and articles in the lectures to enable the interested student to work further into particular problems.  Consult the “Selected Bibliography.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

PURPOSES OF THE COURSE

 

By means of the lectures and assignments of this course the student shall be able to:

 

1.         Demonstrate a knowledge of the main facts, persons, places, and events of the Old Testament historical narratives of Exodus through Nehemiah.

 

2.         Demonstrate a knowledge of the meaning and significance of Old Testament events in the context of redemptive history.

 

3.         Demonstrate a knowledge of some of the archaeological findings that have a bearing on the credibility and elucidation of Old Testament history.

 

4.         Demonstrate an awareness of some of the arguments, that have been made against the reliability of the historical statements in the Old Testament, along with appropriate responses that may be made to such allegations.

 

5.         Demonstrate an ability to practice sound methods of biblical interpretation, particularly as this relates to the narrative sections of the Old Testament.

 

 

Biblical Seminary's policy on

Plagiarism

 

To plagiarize is “To steal or purloin and pass off as one’s own (ideas, writings, etc., of another)” (Webster’s new collegiate dictionary, 1953).   Plagiarism is theft.  Not putting the definition above within quotation marks, not crediting Webster’s (via the text citation), or changing a word (e.g., “claim” for “pass off”) and presenting the definition as your own would all be plagiarism.   In other words, plagiarism is using someone else’s material without giving that person credit.  Other forms of plagiarism include mixing unmarked quotations with your own words and putting a single reference at the end of the paragraph, buying a paper from a term paper service (from any source, including one of those online), turning in a paper written by a student who already took the course, or having someone else write your paper.  If in doubt, ask your professor or the library staff before you turn it in.

            Any paper containing plagiarized material will receive a zero (0%).  You may appeal this policy to the faculty, who could forgive you or discipline you further by, e.g., expulsion or failure for the course.


OT550  Exodus to Return from Exile

Biblical Theological Seminary

Winter Semester 2007

 

Assignment Schedule

 

Dates given are due dates.

 

Mon. Jan. 15              No Class – Martin Luther King Holiday

                        Merrill:                        Chapters 1, 2

                                    Bible:                           Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy,

 

Mon. Jan. 22               Merrill:                        Chapters 3, 4

                                    Bible:                           Joshua, Judges

 

Mon. Jan. 29               Merrill:                        Chapter 5, 6

                                    Bible:                           1 Samuel, 2 Samuel 1-12

 

Mon. Feb.  5               Merrill:                        Chapters 7, 8

                                    Bible:                           2 Samuel 13-1 Kings 11

1 Chronicles 1-2 Chronicles 9

 

Mon. Feb. 12              Merrill:                        Chapters 9, 10

                                    Bible:                           1 Kings 12-2 Kings 14

                                                                        2 Chronicles 10-25

Learn the names of the kings of Israel and Judah for the final Exam (p. 320, Merrill)

 

Mon. Feb. 19              MID-TERM EXAMINATION

 

 

Mon. Feb. 26              Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text, Chapter 9, “Preaching Hebrew Narratives,” pp. 188-227.

 

                                    Sidney Greidanus, “Redemptive History and Preaching,” Pro Rege 19/2 (1990) 9-18.

 

Mon. Mar. 5 and 12 (due date: Mar. 19)

 

                                    Sidney Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament, Chapter 7, “Steps from Old Testament Text to Christocentric Sermon,” pp. 279-292.

 

                                    Write a 2 page discussion of the meaning of 1 Samuel 17 (David and Goliath) in its Old Testament context and its meaning for us today, giving attention to the way in which a redemptive historical perspective both informs and governs the significance that this passage has for a contemporary reader.  In a general way attempt to implement the suggestions of Sidney Greidanus for finding contemporary meaning from Old Testament historical narratives.

 

Mon. Mar. 19             Merrill:                        Chapters 11, 12

                                    Bible:                           2 Kings 15-25, 2 Chronicles 26-36

 

Mon. March 26          Merrill:                        Chapters 13, 14

                                    Bible:                           Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther

 

Mon. April 2              FINAL EXAMINATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OT550 Exodus to Return From Exile

Extra Credit Options

 

Extra credit may be gained for this course by reading one or both of the following books, and submitting a three page typewritten report for each book, summarizing the most important things you have learned from the book.

 

1.         Tremper Longman III,

Making Sense of the Old Testament.  Three Crucial Questions.Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1998.

 

2.         Tremper Longman III,

Immanuel in our Place.  Seeing Christ in Israel's Worship.  Phillipsburg:  Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing House, 2001.

 

 

Grading:

 

You will raise your final grade by:

                        .5 of a grade point for an A on your report

            .4 of a grade point for a B on your report

                        .3 of a grade point for a C on your report.

 

No credit will be given for a report that receives less than a C.

 

This means that if you read both books the maximum that you can raise your final grade is by one grade point – that is from a B to an A or from a C to a B, etc.

 

Due date:

            April 2, 2007.  No extensions.

 

Web sites and e-mail addresses of publishers:

            Baker Book House

                        Web site:  www.bakeracademic.com

                        E-mail: orders@bakerbooks.com

 

            Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing House

                        Web site:  www.prpbooks.com

                        E-mail:  sales@prpbooks.com

 

 

 

                                   

 

 


OT550 EXODUS TO RETURN FROM EXILE

 

Class Lecture Schedule

 

Week 1                                    Course Introduction. Exodus

 

Week 2                                    Exodus continued

 

Week 3                                    Exodus continued

 

Week 4                                    Exodus continued. Leviticus

 

Week 5                                    Numbers / Deuteronomy

 

Week 7                                    Mid-Term Exam

 

Week 8                                    Joshua

 

Week 9                                    Judges

 

Week 10                                  1,2 Samuel

 

Week 11                                  1, 2 Samuel continued

 

Week 12                                  United Kingdom / Divided Kingdom

 

Week 13                                  Final Exam


OT550 Exodus to Return from Exile

Biblical Theological Seminary

Dr. J. Robert Vannoy

 

CLASS LECTURE OUTLINE

 

I.          The deliverance from Egypt - Exodus 1-11

A.        The book of Exodus

B.        The historical setting (the problem of the date of the exodus)

C.        The oppression - Exodus 1:1-2:25; 5

D.        The deliverer - Exodus 3:1-7:13

E.         The plagues - Exodus 7:14-11:10

F          The Passover - Exodus 12:1-13:16

G.        The departure from Egypt and the escape through the Red Sea - Exodus 13:17-15:21

 

II.        Israel in the wilderness - Exodus 15:22 to the end of Deuteronomy

A.        The importance of this period

B.        General features

1.         Redemption is foremost

2.         The promised land was the goal

3.         God's supernatural care for His people

4.         The giving of the law

C.        From Egypt to Sinai - Exodus 15:22-18:27

1.         Manna and quails given - Exodus 16

2.         At Rephidim - Exodus 17-18

a.         Water provided Exodus - 17:1-7

b.         Victory over the Amelekites - Exodus 17:8-16

c.         Jethro's advice - Exodus 18

D.        At Sinai - Exodus 19 to Numbers 10:10

1.         The establishment of the Sinaitic covenant - Exodus 19 - 24:8

a.         The covenant presented - Exodus 19:3-8

b.         Arrangements for the declaration of the foundational law - Exodus 19:9-25

c.         The foundational law proclaimed - Exodus 20:1-17  

d.         The people's fear - Exodus 20:18-21

e.         The Book of the Covenant - Exodus 20:22 - 23:33

f.          The covenant formally ratified - Exodus 24:1-11

2.         Ancient Near Eastern vassal treaties and the Sinaitic covenant

a.         The Hittite treaties

b.         Form of the treaties

c.         The Hittite treaties of the 2nd millennium BC differ in form from later treaties (7th century Assyrian treaties and 8th century Aramaic treaties)

d.         The treaties and the biblical covenant

                       

                        3.         Additional detailed instructions given on the mount - Exodus 24:9-

                                    31:18

a.         Directions for the construction of the tabernacle - Exodus 25:1 to end of 27

b.         Directions for the priesthood - Exodus 28:1 to end of 30

c.         Workmen provided by the LORD - Exodus 31:1-11

d.         The Sabbath stressed - Exodus 31:12-17

e.         The tables of stone - Exodus 31:18

4.         The golden calf - Exodus 32:1 - 35:3

a.         The first great apostasy of Israel - Exodus 32:1-6

b.         Moses' first intercession - Exodus 32:7-14

c.         Moses returns to the camp - Exodus 32:15-24

1)         Destruction of the tables of stone

2)         Aaron's lame excuses

d.         Vengeance on the people - Exodus 32:25-29

e.         Further intercession - Exodus 32:30-33:23

f.          The covenant renewed - Exodus 34:1-35

5.         The tabernacle is built - Exodus 35:1-39:43

6.         The tabernacle is set up - Exodus 40

7.         The book of Leviticus

a.         Name

b.         General comments on content

8.         Laws regarding sacrifice - Leviticus 1-7

9.         Consecration of priests - Leviticus 8-9

10.       The rebellion of Nadab and Abihu - Leviticus 10

11.       Other laws - Leviticus 11-27 (including the Day of Atonement, Leviticus 16)

12.       Preparation for leaving Sinai - Numbers 1:1-10:10

            a.         The book of Numbers            

1)         Name

2)         Content - chronological framework for the book

b.         The men of war numbered and positions assigned - Numbers 1:1-2:24

c.         The Levites are numbered and their duties assigned - Numbers 3:1-4:49

d.         The law of jealousy - Numbers 5:11-31

e.         The law of the Nazarite - Numbers 6:1-21

f.          The offering of the princes at the dedication of the altar - Numbers 7:1-89

g.         The second passover after leaving Egypt - Numbers 9:1-14

                                    h.         Divine provision for direction and guidance - Numbers

                                                9:15-10:10

E.                     From Sinai to the Plains of Moab - Numbers 10:11-22:1

1.         The first stage of the journey - Numbers 10:11-36

2.         Rebellion and dissatisfaction - Numbers 11:1-12:16

3.         The twelve spies - Numbers 13:1-14:45

4.         Laws after the crisis - Numbers 15:1-41

5.         The rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram - Numbers 16-19

6.         Incidents on the way to the Plains of Moab - Numbers 20-22:1

a.         The death of Miriam - Numbers 20:1

b.         The sin of Moses and Aaron - Numbers 20:2-13

c.         Edom's refusal to allow passage - Numbers 20:14-21

d.         The death of Aaron - Numbers 20:22-29

e.         Victory over Arad - Numbers 21:1-3

f.          The brazen serpent incident - Numbers 21:4-9

g.         March around Moab - Numbers 21:10-20

h.         Victory over Sihon - Numbers 21:21-32

i.          Victory over Og, King of Bashan - Numbers 21:33-35         

j.          Arrival in the Plains of Moab - Numbers 22:1

F.         The Balaam incident - Numbers 22-25:18

G.        Preparations for entrance into Canaan - Numbers 26:1-36:13

1.         A new census - Numbers 26

2.         A special problem regarding inheritance - Numbers 27:1-11

3.         Appointment of a new leader for the conquest of Canaan - Numbers 27:1-11

4.         Laws regarding sacrifice and vows - Numbers 28-30

5.         Vengeance on the Midianites - Numbers 31

6.         Apportionment of Trans-Jordan - Numbers 32

7.         Summary of journeys - Numbers 33:1-49

8.         Plans for division of Canaan - Numbers 33:50-36:13

H.        Moses' last days

1.         The Book of Deuteronomy

a.         Its name

b.         The significance of Deuteronomy in the Old Testament canon

c.         Date

2.         The death of Moses - Deuteronomy 34

 

III.       The Book of Joshua

A.        Introductory remarks

1.         Basic theme and structure

2.         Primary character

3.         External evidence for historical events recorded in Joshua

4.         Contemporary approaches to the establishment of Israel in Canaan.

a.         Traditional view: the conquest model

b.         Migration model

c.         Peasant revolt model  

B.        The entry into Canaan - Joshua 1:1-5:12

1.         Joshua's commission - Joshua 1:1-9

2.         The people mobilized - Joshua 1:10-18

3.         The sending of spies to Jericho - Joshua 2

4.         Crossing over Jordan - Joshua 3:1-5:1

5.         Circumcision and encampment at Gilgal - Joshua 5:2-12

C.        The conquest of Canaan - Joshua 5:13-12:24

1.         The conquest of Jericho - Joshua 6

2.         The attack on Ai - Joshua 7-8

3.         Renewal of the covenant at Shechem - Joshua 8:30-35

4.         The southern campaign - Joshua 9-10

5.         The northern campaign - Joshua 11:1-20

6.         Summary of the conquest - Joshua 11:21-12:24

D.        The division of the land - Joshua 13-22

E.         Joshua's last days - Joshua 23-24

 

IV.       The Book of Judges

A.        Introductory remarks

B.        Chronology - survey of the problem

C.        The Ancient Near Eastern situation from 1200-1050

D.        The structure and content of Judges

1.         The historical background for the period to be described further in the book - Judges 1:1-2:5

2.         The theological basis for the proper understanding of the book of Judges - Judges 2:6-3:4

3.         The stories of the major and minor judges - Judges 3:5-16:31

a.         The major and minor judges

b.         Brief comments on outstanding judges

1)         Deborah and Barak - Judges 4-5

2)         Gideon - Judges 6-8

3)         Jephtah - Judges 10:6-12:7

4)         Samson - Judges 13:1-16:31

4.         The spiritual and moral deterioration in the time of the judges illustrated - Judges 17-21

a.         Micah's private sanctuary is robbed of its idols and priest- Judges 17-18

b.         Civil war against Benjamin occasioned by the sexual abuse and murder of a woman - Judges 19-21

 

V.        The Books of 1,2 Samuel

A.        General Comments

1.         Name

2.         A brief survey of content and its significance

B.        Important advances in the history of redemption in 1,2 Samuel

C.        The life of Samuel

1.         Ancestry and youth - 1 Samuel 1-3

2.         The loss and subsequent return of the ark - 1 Samuel 4:1-6:21

3.         The victory at Eben-ezer - 1 Samuel 7

4.         Samuel is established as a leader in Israel - 1 Samuel 7:15-17

5.         The establishment of kingship and covenant continuity - 1 Samuel 8-12

6.         Samuel rejects Saul - 1 Samuel 13,15

7.         Samuel's death and "appearance" to Saul - 1 Samuel 25, 28

 

VI.       The united kingdom

A.        Saul

B.        David

C.        Solomon

 

VII.      The divided kingdom

A.        1, 2 Kings

1.         Name and scope of content

2.         Purpose

3.         Structure

B.        1, 2 Chronicles


OT550  EXODUS TO RETURN FROM EXILE

Biblical Theological Seminary

Winter Semester 2007

Dr. J. Robert Vannoy

 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY KEYED TO CLASS LECTURE OUTLINE

 

GENERAL RESOURCES

 

            HISTORICAL ISSUES

 

Arnold, Bill T. and Williamson, H. G. M.  Dictionary of the Old Testament Historical Books.  Downers Grove: InterVarsityPress, 2005.

 

Bartholomew, Craig; Evans, C. Stephen; Healy, Mary; Murray, Rae (Editors).  "Behind" the Text: History and Biblical Interpretation.  Scripture and Hermeneutics Series, Vol. 4.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003.

 

Howard, David M., Jr.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Books.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1993.

 

Kitchen, K. A.  On the Reliability of the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.

 

Long, V. P., Baker, D. W., Wenham, F. J., Editors.  Windows into Old Testament History.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002.

 

Long, V. Philips (Editor).  Israel's Past in Present Research.  Essays on Ancient Israelite Historiography.  Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, Vol. 7.  Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1999.

 

            .  "How Reliable are Biblical Reports?  Repeating Lester Grabbe's Comparative Experiment,"  VT 52 (2002) 367384.

 

Millard, A. R., Hoffmeier, James K., Baker, David W.  Faith, Tradition, and History.  Old Testament Historiography in Its Near Eastern Context.  Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994.

 

Provan, I., Long, V. P., Longman, III, T.  A Biblical History of Israel.  Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003.

 

 

 

 

I.          THE DELIVERANCE FROM EGYPT - EXODUS 1-11

 

I.A.                  Leder, Arie C.  "Reading Exodus to learn and Learnming to Read Exodus,"  CTJ 34(1999) 11-35.

 

                                     .  "The Coherence of Exodus. Narrative Unity and Meaning,"  CTJ 36/2 (2001) 251-269.

 

                         Millard, Alan.  "How Reliable is Exodus?"  BAR July/Agusut (2000) 51-57.

 

I.B.                  Archer, G. L.  A Survey of Old Testament Introduction.  Chicago: Moody

                                    Press, 1964, 212-223.

 

            .  "An 18th Dynasty Rameses."  JETS 17 (1974) 49-50.

 

Bienkowski, P.  "Jericho Was Destroyed in the Middle Bronze Age, Not

the Late Bronze Age," BAR 16/5 (1990) 45-49.

 

Bimson, J. J.  Redating the Exodus and Conquest. Sheffield: Almond,

1981, 2nd edition.

 

             . Livingston, D.  "Redating the Exodus," BAR 13/5 (1987) 40-53,

66-68.

 

            . " Merenptah's Israel and Recent Theories of Israelite Origins,"

JSOT 49 (1991) 3-29.

 

Finegan, J.  Light From the Ancient Past.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959, second edition, 108, 109, 113, 116, 153.

 

Halpern, B.  "Biblical Exodus Redating Fatally Flawed," BAR 13/6 (1987)

56-61.

 

Harrison, R. K.  Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, 1969, 175, 176, 315-327.

 

Hoffmeier, J. K..  Israel in Egypt.  The Evidence for the Authenticity of

the Exodus Tradition.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

 

Kitchen, K. A.  Ancient Orient and Old Testament.  London: Tyndale

                                    Press, 1966, 57-75.

 

Livingston, D.  "Location of Biblical Bethel and Ai Reconsidered."  WTJ

33 (1970) 20-44.

 

            .  "Traditional Site of Bethel Questioned," WTJ 34/1 (1971) 39-50.

 

Mattingly, G.  “The Exodus-Conquest and the Archaeology of

TransJordan: New Light on an Old Problem."  GTJ 4/2 (1983) 245-262.

 

Merrill, E.  Kingdom of Priests.  Baker, 1987, 58-64.

 

 

Miller, J. M.  "W. F. Albright and Historical Reconstructio­n," BA 42/1

(1979) 39,40.

 

Unger, M. C.  Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids:

Zondervan, 1954, 140-152.

 

Waltke, B.  "Palestinean Artifactual Evidence Supporting the Early Date of the Exodus." BibSac 129 (1972) 33-47.

 

Wood, B. G. "Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho?"   BAR 16/2 (1990) 44-

                                    58.

 

            .  "Jericho's Destruction: Bienkowski is Wrong on All Counts,"

BAR 16/5 (1990) 45-49.

 

            ,  "The Rise and Fall of the 13th-Century Exodus-Conquest Theory,"  JETS 48/3 (2005) 475-490.

 

Wood, L.  A Survey of Israel's History.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1970,

91.

 

I.C.                  MacRae, A. A.  "The Relation of Archaeology to the Bible."  In Modern

                                    Science and Christian Faith.  Wheaton: Van Kampen Press, 1950,

                                    215-219.

 

Motyer, J. A.  Old Testament Covenant Theology.  Unpublished lectures. 

London: Theological Students Fellowship, 1973, 9.

 

 

I.D.                  Albright, W. F.  Archaeology and the Religion of Israel.  Anchor Books. 

                                    New York: Doubleday & Co., 1969, 94.

 

Bright, J.  A History of Israel.  Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1981

(third edition), 127.

 

                       

                       

                        Vos, G.  Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948, reset ninth

                                    printing, 1975, 103,104.

 

 

I.E.                   Beale, G. K.  "An Exegetical and Theological Consideration of the Hardening of Pharaoh's Heart in Exodus 4-14 and Romans 9,"  TrinJ 5 NS (1984) 129-154.

 

                        Calvin, J. Commentaries on the Four Last Books of Moses Arranged in the

                                    Form of A Harmony.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979 (reprint), 102,

                                    141, 210.

 

Chisholm, R. B., Jr.  “Divine Hardening in the Old Testament.”  BibSac

153 (1996) 410-434.

 

Cole, R. A.  Exodus.  TOTC. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 71,72.

 

Block, J.  "Ten Plagues of Egypt." RelEd 71 (1976) 519-526.

 

Gottwald, N.  A Light to the Nations.  New York, 1959, 121.

 

Helfmeyer, F.J.  "toa"  TDOT, Vol. I.  G. J. Botterweck, J. Ringgren, editors.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974, 170.

 

Pfeiffer, C. F.  Egypt and the Exodus.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1964, 47-49.

 

I.F                   Motyer, J. A.  Old Testament Covenant Theology.  Unpublished lectures. 

London: Theological Students Fellowship, 1973, 13-15.

 

                        Payne, J. B.  The Theology of the Older Testament.  Grand Rapids:

                                    Zondervan, 1962, 404,405.

 

Routledge, R.  "Passover and Last Supper," Tyndale Bulletin 53/2 (2002), 203-221

 

I.G.                  Hoffmeier, James K.  Israel in Egypt.  The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

 

                                     .  Ancient Israel in Sinai.  The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Wilderness Tradition.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

 

                        Kerkeslager, Allen, "Mt. Sinai – in Arabia?"  BR 16/2 (2000) 32-39, 52.

 

                        Kitchen, K. A.  "Red Sea"  In New Bible Dictionary.  J. D. Douglas,

                                    editor.  London: Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1962, 1077, 1078.

 

Nof, D., Paldor, N.  "Are There Oceanographic Explanations for the

Israelites' crossing the Red Sea?"  Bulletin American

Meteorological Society 73/3 (1992) 305-314.

 

II.        ISRAEL IN THE WILDERNESS - EXODUS 15:22 TO THE END OF DEUTERONOMY

 

II.B.2.              Kaiser, W. "The Promise Theme and the Theology of Rest,"  BibSac  130

                                    (1973) 135-149

 

II.C.1.              Keil, C. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament.  Vol. 2. The

                                    Pentateuch.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959, 67.

 

II.D.1.a.           Kaiser, W.  Toward an Old Testament Theology.  Grand Rapids:

                                    Zondervan, 1978, 110-113.

 

II.D.1.c.           Baker, David W.  "Aspects of Grace in the Pentateuch, "  ATJ 29 (1997 7-22.

 

Kaiser, W.   Toward Old Testament Ethics.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983, 76,77.

 

Kline, M. G.  Treaty of the Great King.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963,

24.

 

Motyer, J. A.  Old Testament Covenant Theology.  Unpublished lectures. 

London: Theological Students Fellowship, 1973, 17.

 

Provan, I., "'All These I Have Kept Since I Was a Boy' (Luke 18:21): Creation, Covenant, and the Commandments of God," Ex Auditu 17 (20031-46.1)

 

Vos, G. Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948 reset ninth

printing, 1975, 126-128.

 

Wenham, G.  "Grace and Law in the Old Testament."  In Law Morality

and the Bible.  B. Kaye, G. Wenham, Editors.  Downers Grove:

InterVarsity, 1978, 3-23.

 

II.D.1.e.           Dyrness, W.  Themes in Old Testament Theology.  Downers Grove:

                                    InterVarsity Press, 1979, 133,134.

 

Hillers, D. R.  Covenant.  The History of a Biblical Idea.  Baltimore: The

Johns Hopkins Press, 1969, 89-93.

 

 

DeVaux, R.  Ancient Israel.  Its Life and Institutions.  New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1961.

 

II.D.1.f.           Motyer, J. A.  Old Testament Covenant Theology.  Unpublished lectures. 

                                    London: Theological Students Fellowship, 1973, 19.

 

II.D.2               Baker, D. W.  "Aspects of Grace in the Pentateuch."  Ashland Theological Review 29 (1997) 7-22.

 

Baltzer, K.  The Covenant Formulary.  Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971.

 

Hillers, D. R.  Covenant.  The History of a Biblical Idea.  Baltimore: The

Johns Hopkins Press, 1969.

 

Kitchen, K. A.  Ancient Orient and Old Testament.  London: Tyndale

                                    Press, 1966, 90-102.

 

Kline, M. G.  Treaty of the Great King.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963.

 

            .  By Oath Consigned.  Grand Rapids; Eerdmans, 1968.

 

Mendenhall, G. E.  "Law and Covenant in Israel and the Ancient Near

East."  BA 17.2 (1954) 26-46; 17.3 (1954) 49-76.

 

McCarthy, D. J.  Treaty and Covenant.  Analecta Biblica 21A.  Rome:

Biblical Institute Press, 1978.

 

Payne, J. B.  "The B'rith of Yahweh."  In New Perspectives on the Old Testament.  J. B. Payne, editor.  Waco: Word Books, 1970, 240-264.

 

Thompson, J. A.  The Ancient Near Eastern Treaties and the Old

Testament.  London: The Tyndale Press, 1964.

 

Vannoy, J. R.  Covenant Renewal at Gilgal.  Cherry Hill: Mack Publishing

Company, 1977.

 

Wenham, G.  "Grace and Law in the Old Testament."  In Law Morality

and the Bible.  B. Kaye, G. Wenham, Editors.  Downers Grove:

InterVarsity, 1978, 3-23.

 

II.D.3.a.           Motyer, J. A.  Old Testament Covenant Theology.  Unpublished lectures. 

                                    London: Theological Students Fellowship, 1973, 20.

 

II.D.4.a.           Hodge, C.  Systematic Theology.  Vol. 3.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952

                                    (reprint of 1872), 290-293.

 

 

Keil, C. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Vol. 2. The

Pentateuch.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959 (reprint), 222.

 

II.D.4.b.          Wilson, M. R.  "<j^n*."  In TWOT.  Vol. 2.  R. L. Harris, G. Archer, B.

                                    Waltke, editors.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1980, 570-571.

 

 

Calvin, J.  Commentaries on the Four Last Books of Moses arranged in the

Form of A Harmony.  Vol. 3.  Grand Rapids: Baker, reprint, 1979,

340,343.

 

II.D.4.c.           Gispen, W. H.  Exodus.  Bible Students Commentary.  Grand Rapids:

                                    Zondervan, 1982 (Dutch original, 1964), 297.

 

Thompson, J. A.  The Ancient Near Eastern Treaties and the Old

Testament.  London: The Tyndale Press, 1964, 34.

 

 

II.D.4.d.          Keil, C. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament.  Vol. 2. The

                                    Pentateuch.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959 (reprint), 230.

 

II.D.4.e.           Berkouwer, G. C.  Divine Election.  Grand Rapids:   Eerdmans, 1960, 110-

                                    114.

 

Calvin, J.  Commentaries on the Four Last Books of Moses arranged in the

Form of A Harmony.  Vol. 3.  Grand Rapids: Baker, reprint, 1979,

361,362.

 

Gispen, W. H.  Exodus.  Bible Students Commentary.  Grand Rapids:

Zondervan, 1982 (Dutch original, 1964), 302.

 

Hengstenberg, E. W.  Christology of the Old Testament.  Vol. 1.  Grand

Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1956 (reproduction of British edition

of 1872-1878), 127,128.

 

Keil, C. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament.  Vol. 2. The

Pentateuch.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959 (reprint), 234.

 

Vos, G.  Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948, reset ninth

printing, 1975,  107.

 

II.D.5.             Fairbairn, P. The Typology of Scripture.  Two Volumes in One, Complete

                                    and Unabridged. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, no date, 201-

                                    223.

 

                       

                        Vos, G.  Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948, reset ninth

                                    printing, 1975,  145-148, 154-155.

 

 

Woudstra, M. H.  "The Tabernacle in Biblical-theological Perspective."  In

New Perspectives on the Old Testament.  J. B. Payne, editor. 

Waco: Word Books, 1970, 88-103.

 

II.D.7.b.          Leder, Arie C., Vroege, David A.  "Reading and Hearing Leviticus,"  CTJ 34 (1999) 431-442.

 

 

II.D.8              Schultz, S.  The Old Testament Speaks.  Harper and Row, 1980, 65-68.

 

II.D.11            Ibid., 70-73.

 

II.D.12.b.        Breasted, H.  Ancient Records of Egypt.  Vol. 3.  Chicago: University of

                                    Chicago Press, 1906, 127, 129.

 

Clark, R. E. D.  "The Large Numbers of the Old Testament."  Journal of

the Transactions of the Victoria Institute  87 (1955) 82ff.

 

Colenso, J. W.  The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua.  London:  

Longman, Green, 1863.

 

Fouts, D. M.  "A Defense of the Hyperbolic Interpretation of Large

Numbers in the Old Testament."  JETS 40 (1997) 377-387.

 

Harrison, R. K.  Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, 1969, 633.

 

Humphreys, C. J.  "The Number of People in the Exodus from Egypt:

Decoding Mathematically the Very Large Numbers in Numbers I

and XXVI."  VT 48/2 (1988) 196-213.

 

Humphreys, C. J.  "The Numbers in the Exodus from Egypt:  A Further Appraisal,"  VT 50/3 (2000) 323-328.

 

Humphreys, C. J.  "How Many People Were in the Exodus from Egypt?" Science and Christian Belief 12/1 (2000) 17-34.

 

MacRae, A. A.  "Numbers."  In The New Bible Commentary.  F.

Davidson, Editor.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1953, 165.

 

Mendenhall, G. E.  "The Census Lists of Numbers 1 and 26."  JBL 77

(1958) 52-66.

 

Petrie, Flinders.  Egypt and Israel.  New York: E. S. Gorham, 1911, 42.

 

DeVaux, R.  Ancient Israel. Its Life and Institutions.  New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1961, 65.

 

Wenham, J. W.  "Large Numbers in the Old Testament."  TynBul 18

(1967) 19-53.

 

Young, E. J.  An Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, revised edition, 1960, 85.

 

 

II.D.12.c.         Davis, J. J.  Biblical Numerology.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968, 78.

 

II.H.1.             Schultz, S. J.  Deuteronomy.  The Gospel of Love.  Chicago: Moody,

                                    1971, 7, 47,48.

 

 

III.                   THE BOOK OF JOSHUA

 

III.A.3.            Finegan, J.  Light From the Ancient Past. Princeton: Princeton University

                                    Press, 1959, second edition, 108-112, 115,116.

 

 

Kitchen, K. A.  Ancient Orient and Old Testament.  London: Tyndale

                                    Press, 1966, 70.

 

III.A.4.                        Albright, W. F.  "Archaeology and the Date of the Hebrew Conquest of

                                    Palestine," BASOR 58 (1935) 10-18.

 

            . "The Israelite Conquest  of Canaan in the Light of Archaeology,"

BASOR 74 (1939) 11-23.

 

Aharoni, Y.  "The Israelite Occupation of Canaan,"  BAR 7/3 (1982) 14-

23.

 

Alt, A.  "The Settlement of the Israelites in Palestine," in Essays on Old

            Testament History and Religion. Anchor Books. New York:

            Doubleday & Co. 1968, 173-221.

 

Bienkowski, P.  "Jericho Was Destroyed in the Middle Bronze Age, Not

the Late Bronze Age," BAR 16/5 (1990) 45-46, 69.

 

Bimson, J. J.  "The Origins of Israel in Canaan: An Examination of Recent

Theories,"  Themelios, 15/1 (1989) 4-15.

 

Bright, J.  A History of Israel.  Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960,

1972, 1981.

 

Gottwald, N.  The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of

Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis,

1979.

 

             .  The Hebrew Bible - A Socio-Literary Introduction.  Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985.

 

Hess, R. S.  "Fallacies in the Study of Early Israel: An Onamastic

Perspective."  TynBul 45/2 (1994) 339-354.

 

Malamat, A.  "How Inferior Israelite Forces Conquered Fortified

Canaanite Cities," BAR 7/2 (1982) 24-35.

 

McCarter, P. K.  "Norman Gottwald's Sociological-Literary Perspective: A

Major New Introduction to the Bible,"  Bible Review 2/2 (1986)

42-50.

 

Mendenhall, G. E.  "The Hebrew Conquest of Palestine,"  BA 25 (1962)

66-87 = BAR 3, 1970, 100-126.

 

 

Merrill, E. H.  "The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Transition and the

Emergence of Israel."  BibSac 152 (1995) 145-162.

 

Miller, J. M.  "The Israelite Occupation of Canaan."  In Israelite and

Judaean History.  J. H. Hayes, J. M. Miller, Editors.  OTL. 

Philadelphia: Westminster, 1977, 213-284.

 

Noth, M.  The History of Israel.  London: Adam & Charles Black, 1958,

141-163.

 

Noort, E.  "Geschiedenis als Brandpunt over de Rol van de Archeologie

bij de Vestiging van IsraĎl in Kanaän," GTT 78 (1987) 84-102.

 

Waltke, B.  "The Date of the Conquest," WTJ 52 (1990) 181-200.

 

Weippert, M.  The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine.  SBT.

Second Series, 21.  London: SCM Press Ltd. 1971.

 

Wood, B.G.  "Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho?"  BAR 16/2 (1990) 44-

                                    58.

 

            .  "Dating Jericho's Destruction: Bienkowski is Wrong on All

Counts,"  BAR 16/5 (1990) 45-49, 68,69.

 

            . "The Rise and Fall of the 13th-Century Exodus-Conquest Theory,"  JETS 48/3 (2005) 475-490.

 

Yadin, Y.  "Is the Biblical Account of the Israelite Conquest of Canaan

Historically Reliable?"  BAR 7/2 (1982) 16-23.

 

III.B.3.                        Barnes, P.  “Was Rahab's Lie a Sin?” RThR 54/1 (1995) 1-9.

 

Chisholm, Robert B. Jr.,  "Does God Deceive?"  BibSac 155 (1998) 11-28.

 

Hodge, C.  Systematic Theology.  Vol. 3.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952 (reprint of 1872), 440-443.

 

Kaiser, W.  Toward Old Testament Ethics.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan,

1983, 224-225, 271-272.

 

Smith, B. L. "The Bible and Morality."  Themelios   6 (1969) 44-52.

 

III.C.                Lilley, J. P.U.  "The Judgment of God.  The Problem of the Canaanites,"  Themelios 22/2 (1997) 3-12.

 

III.C.1             Bienkowski, P.  "Jericho Was Destroyed in the Middle Bronze Age, Not

                                    the Late Bronze Age," BAR 16/5 (1990) 45-46, 69.

 

Harrison, R. K.  Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, 1969, 318.

 

Kelso, J. L.  "Jericho," IDB, Vol.2. G. A. Buttrick, Editor.  Nashville:

Abingdon Press, 1962, 837.

 

Kenyon, K. M.  Digging Up Jericho.  London: 1957.

 

            .  Archaeology in the Holy Land. Nashville: Nelson, 19854.

 

            .  "Jericho: II. Archaeology of Jericho of the Bronze and Iron

Ages."  In ISBE. Vol. 2. G. W. Bromiley, Editor.  Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, 1982, 993-995.

 

Schaeffer, F. A.  Joshua and the Flow of Biblical History.  Downers

Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1975, 105,106.

 

 

 

Wood, B.G.  "Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho?"  BAR 16/2 (1990) 44-

                                    58.

 

            .  "Dating Jericho's Destruction: Bienkowski is Wrong on All

Counts,"  BAR 16/5 (1990) 45-49, 68,69.

 

            .  "The Rise and Fall of the 13th-Century Exodus-Conquest Theory,"  JETS 48/3 (2005) 475-490.

 

Yamauchi, E.  The Stones and The Scriptures.  Philadelphia: Lippincott,

1972, 57,58.

 

III.C.2.            Finegan, J.  Light From the Ancient Past.  Princeton:  Princeton University

                                    Press, 1959, second edition, 160.

 

 

Bimson, J., Livingston, D.  "Redating the Exodus," BAR 13/5 (1987) 40-

53, 66-68.

 

Free, J. P.  Archaeology and Bible History.  Wheaton: Van Kampen Press,

1950, 134.

 

Halpern, B.  "Biblical Exodus Redating Fatally Flawed," BAR 13/6 (1987)

56-61.

 

Kitchen, K. A.  Ancient Orient and Old Testament.  London: Tyndale

                                    Press, 1966, 63,64.

 

Livingston, D.  "Location of Biblical Bethel and Ai Reconsidered."  WTJ

33 (1970) 20-44.

 

            .  "Traditional Site of Bethel Questioned,"  WTJ 34/1 (1971) 39-

50.

 

            .  "Further Considerations on the Location of Bethel at El-Bireh."

PEQ 126 (1994) 154-159.

 

Rainey, A.  "Bethel is Still Betin."  WTJ 33 (1971) 175-188.

 

Waltke, B.  "The Date of the Conquest," WTJ 52 (1990) 193.

 

III.C.4.                        Blair, H. J.  "Joshua."  In The New Bible Commentary: Revised.  D.

                                    Guthrie, J. A. Motyer, editors.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970,

                                    244.

 

 

Keil, C. F., Delitzsch, F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament: 

Joshua, Judges, Ruth.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, reprint, 1956,

110.

 

Newman, R. C.  "The Longest Day,"  United Evangelical, (Aug. 23, 1974)

8-11.

 

IV.                   THE BOOK OF JUDGES

 

IV.                   Cundall, A. E., Morris, L.  Judges, Ruth.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: Inter-

                                    Varsity Press, 1968.

 

Wood, L.  Distressing Days of the Judges.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan,

                                    1975.

 

IV. B.              Washburn, David L.  "The Chronology of Judges: Another Look,"  BibSac 147 (1990) 414-425.

 

V.                    THE BOOKS OF 1,2 SAMUEL

 

Birch, B.C.  The Rise of the Israelite Monarchy: The Growth and

Development of 1 Sam 7-15.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale

University, 1970, 101.

 

Fokkelman, J. P.  "Saul and David, Crossed Fates,"  Bible Review 5/3

(1989) 20-32.

 

Gordon, R. P.  1 & 2 Samuel.  Old Testament Guides.  Sheffield:  JSOT

Press, 1984.

 

            .  1 & 2 Samuel. A Commentary.  Exeter: The Paternoster Press,

1986.

 

Klein, R. W.  1 Samuel.  Word Biblical Commentary.  Waco: Word

Books, 1983.

 

McCarter, P. K.  1 Samuel.  Anchor Bible.  New York: Doubleday, 1980.

 

            .  II Samuel.  Anchor Bible.  New York:  Doubleday, 1984.

 

Smith, H. P.  A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Samuel.  ICC.             Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1912, 88. 

 

Vannoy, J. R.  Covenant Renewal at Gilgal.  Cherry Hill: Mack Publishing

Co., 1978.

 

VI.                   THE UNITED KINGDOM

 

VI.A.               Merrill, E. H.  Kingdom of Priests.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987, 189-211.

 

Schultz, S.  The Old Testament Speaks.  Harper and Row, 1980, 122-126.

 

VI.B.               Merrill, E. H.  Kingdom of Priests.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987, 211-284.

 

Schultz, S.  The Old Testament Speaks.  Harper and Row, 1980, 127-141.

 

VI.C.               Merrill, E. H.  Kingdom of Priests.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987, 285-313.

 

            Schultz, S.  The Old Testament Speaks.  Harper and Row, 1980, 141-153.

 

 

VII.                  THE DIVIDED KINGDOM

 

VII.A.              Payne, D. F.  Kingdoms of the Lord.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981.

 

Wood, L. J.  Israel's United Monarchy.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979.

 

VII. A.2.          Archer, G. L.  A Survey of Old Testament Introduction.  Chicago: Moody

                                    Press, 1964, 275

 

 

RECOMMENDED COMMENTARIES ON THE HISTORICAL BOOKS – JOSHUA- KINGS

 

JOSHUA

Davis, D. R.  No Falling Words.  Expositions of the Book of Joshua.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.

 

Hess, R. S.  Joshua.  TOTC.  Downberes Grove:InterVarsity Press, 1996.

 

Howard D. M. Jr.  Joshua.  NAC.  Nashville: Broadman, 1999.

 

Woudstra, M.  The Book of Joshua.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids:Eerdmans, 1981.

 

JUDGES, RUTH

Davis D. R.  Such a Great Salvation.  Expositions of the Book of Judges.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1990.

 

            Block, D. I.  Judges, Ruth.  NAC.  Nashville: Boradman, 1999.

 

Hubbard, R. L., Jr.  The Book of Ruth.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.

 

1, 2 SAMUEL

            Arnold, B. T.  1 and 2 Sameul.  NIVAC.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003.

           

            Baldwin, J.  1 and 2 Samuel.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1988.

 

            Bergen, R. D.  1, 2 Samuel.  NAC.  Nashville: Broadman, 1996.

 

Davis, D. R.  Looking on the Heart.  Expositions of the book of 1 Samuel.  Vol. 1: 1 Samuel 1-14.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.

 

Davis, D. R.  Looking on the Heart.  Expositions of the book of 1 Samuel.  Vol. 2: 1 Samuel 15-31.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.

 

Davis, D. R.  Out of Every Adversity.  2 Samuel.  Christian Focus Publications: 1999.

 

Vannoy, J. R.  1, 2 Samuel.  Cornerstone Biblical Commentary, Vol. 4.  Wheaton: Tyndale House, (awaiting publication, projected, August 2007).

 

            Youngblood, R. F.  1, 2 Samuel.  EBC, Vol. 3.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992.

 

 

1, 2 KINGS

Davis, D.R.  The Wisdom and the Folly.  An Exposition of the Book of First Kings.  Christian Focus Publications, 2002.

 

            House, P. R.  1,2 Kings.  NAC.  Nashville: Broadman, 1995.

 

Provan, I. W.  1 and 2 Kings.  NIBCOT.  Peabody:Hendrickson/ Paternoster, 1995.