OT 551 FOUNDATIONS IN BIBLICAL PROPHECY                 

Biblical Theological Seminary

Dr. J. Robert Vannoy

Winter Semester 2007

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

 

"Foundations in Biblical Prophecy" has a twofold purpose:  1) to introduce the student to the phenomena of "prophecy" in Ancient Israel, and 2) to familiarize the student with the general content of the prophetic corpus of the Old Testament.  The first purpose will be accomplished by classroom discussion of such questions as: did all of Israel's prophets receive a special "call" to their prophetic task; how is the origin of prophetism in Israel to be explained; are there analogies to Israel's prophetism to be found among other ancient peoples; how could the ancient Israelite distinguish between a true and a false prophet; were the prophets cultic functionaries; were the prophets writers; does biblical prophecy have apologetic value, etc.  Beyond these general features of the prophetic phenomena in the Old Testament, attention will be given to hermeneutical principles that are important for a proper interpretation of the Old Testament prophetic writings.  This will include discussion of such things as the prophetic time perspective, the conditionality of prophetic statements, and the idea of double sense or double reference in prophetic statements.  The student will read each of the major and minor prophetic books along with C. H. Bullock's An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books.  Interpretive issues in the books of Obadiah, Joel, Jonah and Amos will be discussed in the classroom.

 Prerequisite: Hebrew 2.  Three hours.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE:

 

1.         To examine the phenomena of prophetism in Ancient Israel, including such things as the prophetic call, the inspiration of the prophets, relation of the prophets to the cult, true and false prophets, symbolic acts, comparison of prophecy in Israel to prophecy outside Israel, and the apologetic value of biblical prophecy and its fulfillment.

 

2.         To become familiar with the writings of the prophets of Israel including the general content of each book, its historical setting, and purpose of writing.

 

3.         To learn some principles of hermeneutics relative to the prophetical writings, both in theory and application.

 

4.              To become acquainted with critical theories concerning the authorship and character of prophetical books, with particular attention given to Isaiah and Daniel.

 

5.         To explore how the message of the prophetic writings has relevance for the church of the 21st century.

 

 

 

METHODS EMPLOYED TOWARD THE SECURING OF THE COURSE OBJECTIVES:

 

1.         Texts:  C. Hassel Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books.

 

Elizabeth Achtemeier, “Preaching from the Prophets,” (Chapter 7, pp. 109-135) in Preaching From the Old Testament

 

Elizabeth Achtemeier, Preaching from the Minor Prophets.

Or: 

Donald A. Leggett,  Loving God and Disturbing Men. Preaching from the Prophets.

 

2.         Reading each of the prophetic books in the English Bible.

 

3.         Lectures will supplement readings and will concentrate on various aspects of the phenomena of prophetism in ancient Israel and the books of Obadiah, Joel, Jonah, and Amos.

 

4.         Classroom discussion and interaction will be encouraged.

 

5.         Preparation of an exegetical paper on the Book of Hosea.

 

6.         Preparation of an exegetical analysis of Amos 9:11-15.

 

7.         Brief written discussion of the readings from Achtemeier or Achtemeier and Leggett.

 

 

PROCEDURES USED IN TESTING ACHIEVEMENT OF THE COURSE OBJECTIVES:

 

1.         Potential quizzes each week on assigned readings.  During the quarter three or four quizzes will be given.

 

2.         Mid-term examination, primarily on lecture material.

 

3.         Final examination, also primarily on lecture material

 

4.         Evaluation of papers. 

 


OT 551 FOUNDATIONS IN BIBLICAL PROPHECY

Biblical Theological Seminary

Winter Semester 2007

Dr. J. Robert Vannoy

 

Assignments

 

Reading

 

C. Hassell Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books.

Chicago: Moody Press, 1986.

 

Elizabeth Achtemeier, “Preaching from the Prophets,” (Chapter 7, pp. 109-135)

in Preaching From the Old Testament.  Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1989.

 

Elizabeth Achtemeier, Preaching from the Minor Prophets. Grand

            Rapids:Eerdmans, 1998. 

OR:

Donald Leggett, Loving God and Disturbing Men.  Preaching from the Prophets.  Bowmanville, Canada: Clements Publishing, 2003, Revised Edition.

 

 

Term Paper

 

A study is to be made of the book of Hosea, the results of which are to be summarized in a paper of 15-20 pages (typewritten, double-spaced, using correct form for footnotes, bibliography, etc.).  The paper is to include discussion of the following matters:

 

1.     The moral problem of Hosea's wife of whoredoms - what position do you take on this, and why?

 

            Resources to begin your study:

H. Eybers, “The Matrimonial Life of Hosea,”  In Studies in the Books of Hosea and Amos. Pretoria: OTWSA, 1964,1965, pp. 11-34.

 

H. H. Rowley, “The Marriage of Hosea,” In Men of God: Studies in Old Testament History and Prophecy. London: 1963, pp. 66-97.

 

2.         Select some verse, section, or topic in the book of Hosea (other than the topic of Hosea's wife of whoredoms) that you find to be particularly interesting, and comment on it, utilizing insights derived from Hebrew translation and exegesis. 

 

3.         Make some comments on the significance of the book of Hosea for the time in which it was written; and then bridging the historical gap, comment on its significance for God's people at the beginning of the 21st century.

 


Assignment Schedule - dates given are due dates

 

Tues                Jan. 16             Bullock:           Obadiah,                      pp. 254-262   

Joel,                             pp. 324-334    11

Jonah,                          pp. 41-54        14

Amos,                         pp. 55-83        29                                            (63)

 

Tues.               Jan. 23             Bullock:           Hosea,                         pp. 84-102      18

Micah,                         pp. 103-124    22

(40)

 

 

Tues.               Jan. 30             Hosea paper research

 

Tues.               Feb. 6              Bullock:           Isaiah                           pp. 125-164    40

Zephaniah                   pp. 165-173      9

                                                                                                                                    (49)

 

Tues.               Feb. 13            Hosea paper research

 

Tues.               Feb. 20            MID-TERM EXAMINATION

 

Tues.               Feb. 27            Bullock:           Habakkuk,                   pp. 174-184    11

Jeremiah,                     pp. 185-214    30

Nahum,                       pp. 215-226    12

(53)

 

Tues.               March 6          Bullock            Ezekiel,                       pp. 227-253    27

Daniel,                         pp. 279-300    22

(49)

                                    Hosea paper due*

           

            Tues.               March 13        Bullock:           Haggai,                        pp. 301-309    9

Zechariah,                   pp. 310-323    14

Malachi,                      pp. 335-343    9

(32)

 

Tues.               March 20                                Amos exegesis

 

 

 

 

Tues.               March 27        Give a two page summarization of the five most significant things you have learned from reading either the two assigned readings from Achtemeier, or Chapter 7 from Achtemeier and the book by Leggett.

 

Elizabeth Achtemeier, Preaching from the Minor Prophets.

            Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

 

Elizabeth Achtemeier, "Preaching from the Prophets,"

(Chapter 7, pp. 109-135) in Preaching From the Old

Testament.  Louisville: Westminster/John Knox,

1989.

 

Donald Leggett,  Loving God and Disturbing Men.  Preaching from the Prophets.  Bowmanville, Canada: Clements Publishing, 2003, Revised Edition.

 

 

* A one week extension will be granted without penalty.  A .5 grade point penalty per week will be given for subsequent lateness.

 

 

Grading

 

1/4                   Quizzes on Bullock (potential every day on which a reading assignment from Bullock is due); Amos exegesis; Achtemeier report. 

 

1/4                   Hosea paper

 

1/4                   Mid-term Exam

 

1/4                   Final Exam

 

 

Extra-credit

 

You may achieve extra- credit for your grade in this course by reading chapters 1,2,6,7 in the book CONTINUITY AND DISCONTINUITY. PERSPECTIVES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TESTAMENTS, edited by John Feinberg, Crossway, 1988.  This book is no longer out of print if you desire to purchase it, but photo copies of these four chapters are on reserve in the Library.  The articles in this book, as the title suggests, raise the important issue of continuity and discontinuity between the Testaments, which is a particularly important issue when one attempts to interpret the "kingdom prophecies" of the OT prophetical books.  Do these prophecies speak in figurative language about the New Testament  church, or do they have reference to a future that involves some sort of a reconstituted national Israel?  Does the Bible see a future for Israel, or is Israel superceded by the church?  You should read the above chapters and then reflect on the issues that they raise, and write an 8-10 page paper describing your own conclusions on these issues.  This does not necessarily mean that you have to agree with the expression of either side of the issue as represented in the essays you have read.  There may be other alternatives.  This, of course, is a very large subject, and one that is very complex as well.  It is possible that you may not be able to come to any firm conclusions in the short time that you have to work on this project.  I am aware that most of you are probably in the early stages of your own theological reflection, and that issues like this need to be worked out over a longer rather than a shorter period of time of wrestling with the issues involved.  But I would hope that this project would encourage you to at least make some tentative steps toward finding your own way on these questions, and then enable you to identify some of the outstanding issues that in your own mind are as yet unresolved.  These unresolved issues could also be part of the discussion included in your paper.

 

Due date March 27 – no extensions.

 

Should you choose to do this paper, I will give extra-credit as follows:

 

Grade of A on your paper = .75 grade point increase of your final grade.

Grade of B on your paper = .50 grade point increase of your final grade.

 

Biblical Seminary's policy on

Plagiarism

 

To plagiarize is “To steal or purloin and pass off as one’s own (ideas, writings, etc., of another)” (Webster’s new collegiate dictionary, 1953).   Plagiarism is theft.  Not putting the definition above within quotation marks, not crediting Webster’s (via the text citation), or changing a word (e.g., “claim” for “pass off”) and presenting the definition as your own would all be plagiarism.   In other words, plagiarism is using someone else’s material without giving that person credit.  Other forms of plagiarism include mixing unmarked quotations with your own words and putting a single reference at the end of the paragraph, buying a paper from a term paper service (from any source, including one of those online), turning in a paper written by a student who already took the course, or having someone else write your paper.  If in doubt, ask your professor or the library staff before you turn it in.

            Any paper containing plagiarized material will receive a zero (0%).  You may appeal this policy to the faculty, who could forgive you or discipline you further by, e.g., expulsion or failure for the course.

 

 

 

 

 


OT 551 FOUNDATIONS IN BIBLICAL PROPHECY

Biblical Theological Seminary

Dr. J. Robert Vannoy

 

CLASS LECTURE OUTLINE

 

 

I.          Prophetism in ancient Israel - general remarks.

 

A.        A unique phenomenon.

 

B.        The prophets were servants of God, invested with the prophetic function.

1.              Some of the prophets received a special call to the prophetic task.

2.              For some prophets no special calling is recorded, but all the prophets demonstrate awareness that they are endowed with the prophetic function.

3.              The endowment with the prophetic function was a power that no prophet could resist.

 

C.        The function of the prophet is the proclamation of the Word of God.

1.         Expressions with which the prophets introduce their sermons are

            indicative that the message is God's, not their own.

2.         The prophet must declare God's Word, regardless of whether or not this is

                        pleasant to him.

3.         There is a distinction between the prophet's own word and the Word of

                        God which they spoke.

 

D.        The phenomenon of Israel's prophets is as old as the history of Israel itself.

 

E.         Besides male prophets, Israel also had her prophetesses.

 

F.         Besides individual prophets, there are also bands or companies of prophets

            referred to in the O.T.

1.         References to the prophetic bands or companies.

2.         Members of these companies came to be called <ya!yb!N+h^ yn}B=

3.         The term "school of the prophets."

4.         The companies of the prophets apparently lived in their own communities.

5.         The degeneration of the prophetic function within the companies.

6.         The canonical prophets are distinguished from these companies.

 

G.        The canonical prophets, or writing prophets.

 

II.        The prophetic nomenclature

 

A.        The most general name is "the man of God."

 

B.        "Servant of the Lord."

 

C.        "The messenger of the Lord."

 

D.         aybn

1.         Etymology of aybn.

2.         Usage of the word  aybn.

 

E.         ha#r)

 

F.         hz#oj

 

 

III.       The origin of prophetism in Israel.

 

A.        Alleged analogies to Israel's prophetism in other nations.

 

1.         Mesopotamian analogies.

a.         Letter of Itur-asdu to Zimrilim.

b.         Letter of Kibri-Dagan to Zimrilim.

c.         Letter of Kibri-Dagan to Zimrilim.

d.         Letter of Kibri-Dagan.

e.         Conclusion regarding Mesopotamian analogies.

 

2.         Egyptian analogies.

a.         Admonitions of Ipu-wer.

b.         Prophecy of Nefer-rohu.       

 

3.         Canaanite analogies

 

4.         Conclusion

 

B.        Internal Israelite explanations for the origin of prophetism.

1.         Religious genius of Israel itself.

2.         Religious consciousness of the prophets.

 

C.        Prophetism in Israel according to the witness of the Old Testament finds its origin

            in God and must be viewed as a gift of God to his people (Deut. 18:9-22).

 

IV.       The ways and means of God's revelation to the prophets.

 

A.        Prophetic seeing and hearing the word of God.

 

B.        The function of the Holy Spirit in the revelation of God to the prophets.

 

1.         Some biblical passages which have a bearing on the function of the Holy

            Spirit in the revelation of God to the prophets.

 

2.         The Holy Spirit, ecstasy, and the prophets.

a.         Mowinckel - Spirit and ecstasy belong together.

b.         Sometimes the Holy Spirit produces abnormal behavior described

            as prophesying.

c.         Must not exaggerate this into more than the Bible says.

d.         To admit abnormal behavior does not mean derivation from

            heathen practices.

e.         The Bible does not indicate that the coming of the Spirit on a man

            always brings about abnormal behavior.

f.          Mowinckel's contention is not true.

 

C.        In what sense may we speak of ecstasy among Israel's prophets?

 

1.         There has always been a difference of opinion here.

2.         Ecstasy is a broad concept and very different things can be understood by it.

3.         Certainly not everything labeled as ecstatic behavior on the part of the

            canonical prophets can be so considered.

4.         The form of ecstatic behavior most frequently displayed among Israel's

            prophets is that of the visionary experience - not wild abnormal behavior.

 

V.        The preaching of the prophets.

 

A.        General remarks

1.         The prophets were first and foremost proclaimers of God's Word.

2.         The message of the prophets was a faithful proclamation of God's revelation, but not to the exclusion of a personal element in the form of its presentation.

 

B.        Some formal characteristics of the prophetic proclamation.

1.         The messages are direct and living - not abstract and dry.

2.         The prophets often utilize a play on words to get a point across.

3.         The prophets often utilize poetic expression.

4.              The prophets often use imagery or figurative language.

 

C.        Some characteristics of the content of the prophetic proclamation.

 

1.         The prophets do not bring a new religion or morality.

                        2.         The message of the prophets centers in four areas.

a.         Religious.

b.         Morality and social relationships.

c.         Political issues.

d.         Eschatology and messianic expectation.

 

VI.       True and false prophets.

 

A.        Statement of the problem.

 

B.        Validation criteria for true prophecy.

1.         Moral character of the prophet as observed in his daily conduct.

2.         Signs and wonders.

3.         The fulfillment of prophecy.

4.         The conformity of the message to previous revelation.

5.         Enlightenment by God's Spirit.

 

VII.      Prophet and cult in ancient Israel.

 

A.        The view that the prophets were anticultic

1.         Explication of the view.

2.         Scripture adduced for support of this view.

3.         Assessment of the view.

 

B.        The view that the prophets were cultic functionaries.

1.         Explication of the view.

2.         Scripture adduced for support of this view.

3.         Assessment of the view.

 

C.        The view that the prophets were neither anticultic as such, nor cultic functionaries, but simply the proclaimers of divine revelation.

 

VIII.    The composition of the prophetic books - were the prophets writers?

 

            A.        The traditional view.

           

            B.        The literary critical school.

                        1.         Isaiah

                        2.         Daniel

                                    a.         The a priori that predictive prophecy does not happen.

                                    b.         Alleged historical errors.

                                    c.         Alleged late linguistic features.

                                    d.         Conclusion.

 

            C.        The history of traditions school.

                        1.         Nyberg

                        2.         Birkeland

                        3.         Nielsen

                                    a.         Synopsis of his thesis

                                    b.         Assessment of his thesis.

 

IX.       Some hermeneutical principles for interpretation of the prophetic writings.

 

A.        Some general characteristics of predictive prophecy.

1.         The purpose of predictive prophecy.

2.         Predictive prophecy and history writing.

3.         The progressive character of predictive prophecy.

4.         Predictive prophecy has its own peculiar time perspective.

5.         The message of predictive prophecy may be couched in culturally dated terminology.

6.         Predictive prophecy may be conditional.

7.         Kinds of predictive prophecy.

 

B.        Some guidelines for interpretation of prophecy.

1.         Make a careful grammatical-historical-contextual analysis of the passage.

2.         State explicitly to whom or to what the passage refers.

3.         Pay attention to fulfillment citations.

4.         Avoid the idea of double fulfillment or double sense.

5.              Interpretative analysis must precede a decision on the exact relationship

            between the literal and figurative in any passage (cf. Mickelsen, 299ff.).

 

X.        The apologetic value of biblical prophecy.

 

A.        Does biblical prophecy have apologetic value?  - a preliminary consideration.

 

B.        The revelatory claim of the Bible.

 

C.        Prophecy and fulfillment.

 

D.        Conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION TWO - A SURVEY OF THE PROPHETICAL BOOKS

 

I.          Introductory remarks.

 

II.        Obadiah.

 

A.        Author and date.

 

B.        Theme of the book.

 

C.        Comments on the content.

 

III.       Joel

 

A.        Author and date.

 

B.        Content of the book.

1.         The problem of approach to the first two chapters.

2.         The problem of chronological sequence.

3.         Outline of the book.

4.         Some comments on the content.

 

IV.       Jonah.

 

A.        The name and the writer.

 

B.        The nature of the book - historical or non-historical.

 

C.        The content of the book.

1.         Historical background.

2.         Purpose of the book.

 

V.        Amos.

 

A.        The author and his background.

1.         His name.

2.         His place of residence.

3.         The place of his prophetic activity.

4.         The time of his prophetic activity.

5.         The political and social conditions of his time.

 

B.        The book of Amos and its content.

1.         General outline.

2.         Major theme.

3.         Comments on content.

 


OT 551 FOUNDATIONS IN BIBLICAL PROPHECY

Bibliography Keyed to Class Lecture Outline

Winter 2007

 

GENERAL REFERENCE VOLUMES ON THE PROPHETIC BOOKS

 

            Chisholm, Robert B., Jr.  Handbook on the Prophets.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002

 

Gordon, Robert P. (Editor).  The Place is Too Small For Us.  The Israelite Prophets in Recent Scholarship.  Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, Vol. 5.  Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1995.

 

McConville, Gordon.  The Prophets.  Exploring the Old Testament, Vol. 4.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2002.

 

Payne, J. Barton.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  The Complet Guide to Scriptural Predictions and Their Fulfillment.  New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

 

Robertson, O. Palmer.  The Christ of the Prophets.  Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2004.

 

I.          PROPHETISM IN ANCIENT ISRAEL - GENERAL REMARKS.

 

I.B.2.               Harris, R. L. "Chronicles and the Canon in New Testament Times,"  JETS 33/1 (1990) 75-84.

 

I.C.1.               Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952, 171-175.

 

I.C.3.               Schelhaas, J.  "II Samuel 7:1-5," in The Law and the Prophets.  J. Skilton, Editor.  Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1974, 283-297.

 

I.D.                  Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody, 1968, 26-35.

 

I.F.                  Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody, 1968, 28-34.

 

Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952, 83-94.

 

II.        THE PROPHETIC NOMENCLATURE

 

II.D.                Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody, 1968, 37-40.

 

Vos, G.  Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948 (reset for Ninth Printing, 1975), 191-197.

 

II.D.1.             Albright, W. F.  From the Stone Age to Christianity. Doubleday Anchor Books.  Garden City: Doubleday & Co. 19572, 303-305.

 

Meek, T. J.  Hebrew Origins. Harper Torchbooks.  New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960, 150.

 

II.E.                 Haldar, A.  Associations of Cult Prophets Among the Ancient Semites.  Uppsala, 1945, 104,108.

 

Kuenen, A.  The Prophets and Prophecy in Israel. Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1969 (original Dutch edition, 1875), 550-559.

 

Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952, 62,63,105-124.

 

III.       THE ORIGIN OF PROPHETISM IN ISRAEL.

 

III.A.1.                        Craghan, J. F.  "Mari and Its Prophets: The Contributions of Mari to the                                       Understanding of Biblical Prophecy."  BTB 5 (1975)32-55.

 

Hoffner, H. A., Jr.  "Ancient Views of Prophecy and Fulfillment: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor," JETS 30/3 (1987) 257-265.

 

Huffmon, H. B.  "Prophecy in the Mari Letters."  BA 31 (1968) 101-124.

 

       ,  "The Origins of Prophecy."  In Magnalia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God.  F.M. Cross, W. E. Lemke, P. D. Miller, Editors.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1976, 171-186.

 

Malamat, A.  "Prophetic Revelations in New Documents from Mari and the Bible." SVT 15 (1966) 207-227.

 

       , "A Forerunner of Biblical Prophecy:  The Mari Documents."  In Ancient Israelite Religion: Essays in Honor of Frank Moore Cross.  P. D. Miller, Jr., P. D. Hanson, S. D. McBride, Editors.  Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987, 33-52.

 

Moran, W. L.  "New Evidence from Mari on the History of Prophecy."  Bib 50 (1969) 15-56.

 

       , "Akkadian Letters: Divine Revelations." In ANET. J. B. Pritchard, Editor.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969, 623-625.

 

Ridderbos, N. H.  IsraĎls Profetie en ‘Profetie’ Buiten Israel.  Exegetica, 2e reeks, 1. Den Haag: Uitgeverij van Keulen, 1955, 54.

 

Tucker, G. M.  "Prophecy and the Prophetic Literature," in The Hebrew Bible and Its Modern Interpreters. D. A. Knight and G. M. Tucker, editors.  Chicago: Scholars Press, 1985, 346,347.

 

Walters, S. D. "Prophecy in Mari and Israel."  JBL 89 (1970) 78-81.

 

Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Appendix: "Extra-Biblical ‘Prophecy’ in the Ancient World."  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952, 193-205.

 

 

III.A.2.                        Albright, W. F.  From the Stone Age to Christianity. Doubleday Anchor Books.                                        Garden City: Doubleday & Co. 19572, 186.

 

Ranke, H.  Altorientalische Texte und Bilder zum Alten Testament. J. Gressmann, Editor. Berlin and Leipzig, 1926, p 51 ff.

 

Shupak, N.  "The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage: the Admonitions of Ipuwer."  In The Context of Scripture.  Vol 1.  W. W. Hallo, Editor.  Leiden: Brill, 1997, 83-98.

 

Smith, G. V.  "Prophet; Prophecy."  ISBE. Vol. 3. G. W. Bromiley, General Editor.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986, 989.

 

Wilson, J. A.  "Egyptian Oracles and Prophecies." In ANET. J. Pritchard, Editor.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969,441-449.

 

III.A.3.                        Kuenen, A.  The Prophets and Prophecy in Israel. Amsterdam, Philo Press, 1969 (original Dutch edition, 1875), 555.

 

Lichtheim, M.  "The Report of Wenamun."  In The Context of Scripture.  Vol 1.  W. W. Hallo, Editor.  Leiden: Brill, 1997, 89-93.

 

von Rad, G.  Old Testament Theology. Vol. 2.  New York, Harper & Row, 1965, 8.

 

 

Wilson, J. A. "Egyptian Myths, Tales, and Mortuary Texts: The Journey of Wen-Amon to Phoenicia."  ANET.  J. B. Pritchard, Editor.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969, 25-29.

 

III.C.               Freeman, H. E. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody, 1968, 26.

 

Hengstenberg, E. W.  Christology of the Old Testament. Vol. 1.  Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1956 (reprint of 1872 English edition), 104-115.

 

Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952, 20-35.

 

IV.       THE WAYS AND MEANS OF GOD'S REVELATION TO THE PROPHETS

 

IV.B.2.a.          Mowinckel, S.  “‘The Spirit’ and the ‘Word’ in the Pre-Exilic Reforming Prophets." JBL 53 (1934) 199- 227.

 

IV.B.2.b.         Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Chapter 9. "The Prophets as Recipients of Revelation." Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952, 70,71,75, 161-190.

 

Wood, L.  The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976 (Chapter 9, "Were the Early Prophets Ecstatics?", pp. 90-100)

 

IV.C.2.            Alden, R. L.  "Ecstasy and the Prophets."  JETS 9 (1966) 149-156.

 

Lindblom, J.  Prophecy in Ancient Israel. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1962, 4,5,106.  See reference to Lindblom by O. Eissfeldt, "The Prophetic Literature." In The Old Testament and Modern Study.  H. H. Rowley, Editor. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951, 137.

 

Parker, S.  "Possession Trance and Prophecy in Pre-exilic Israel," VT 28 (1978) 271-285.

 

Wilson, R. "Prophecy and Ecstasy: A Reexamination." JBL 98 (1979) 321-337.

 

V.        THE PREACHING OF THE PROPHETS

 

V.A.2              Vos, G. "The Idea of Biblical Theology as a Science and as a Theological Discipline."  In Redemptive History and Biblical Interpretation.  The Shorter Writings of Geerhardus Vos.  R. B. Gaffin, Jr., Editor.  Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1980, 14.

 

 

V.B.3.              Kugel J. L.  The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and Its History.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

 

Ridderbos, N.H., Wolf H.M.  "Poetry, Hebrew," ISBE. Vol.3.  G. W. Bromiley, Editor.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986, 891-898.

 

V.B.4.              Parker, M.  "Exploring Four Persistent Prophetic Images,"  Bible Review 6/5 (1990) 38-45.

 

V.C.2.a.2)        Eichrodt, W.  Theology of the Old Testament. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961, 17, 51ff.

 

Hillers, D. R.  Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1969, 140ff.

 

V.C.2.c.           Vos, G. Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948 (reset, ninth printing 1975), 186.

 

V.C.2.d.           Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 126-128.

 

VI.  TRUE AND FALSE PROPHETS

 

VI.B.1.                        Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 104.     

 

VI.B.5.                        Aalders, G. Ch.  De valsche profetie in IsraĎl.  Academisch Proefschrift.  Wageningen, J. Zomer, Drukkerij Vada, 1911, 189.

 

Bavinck, H. Gereformeerde Dogmatiek.  Vol 1.  Kampen: Kok, 1918, 403, 512.

 

Hilber, J. W.  “Diversity of OT Prophetic Phenomena and NT Prophecy,” WTJ 56 (1994) 243-258.

 

Mare, W. H.  "Prophet and Teacher in the New Testament Period,"  BETS 9/3 (1966) 139-148.

 

Vos, G. Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948 (reset, ninth printing                                       1975), 5,6.

 

 

 

 

VII.      PROPHET AND CULT IN ANCIENT ISRAEL

 

VII.                  Mowinckel, S.  The Psalms in Israel's Worship, Vol. 1.  Nashville, Abingdon, 1962.

 

VII.A.1.           Köhler, L.  Old Testament Theology.  Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1957                                             (translated from third revised German edition, 1953), 72, 181, 182.

 

Volz, P.  Mose und sein Werk.  Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr  (Paul Siebeck), 1932.

 

VII.A.3.           Allis, O. T.  The Five Books of Moses.  Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed                                                 Publishing Company, 1949, 170-173.

 

McComisky, T.  "Amos," The Expositor's Bible Commentary.  Vol. 7.  F. E.                                             Gaebelein, Editor.  Grand Rapids; Zondervan, 1985, 316.

 

Ridderbos, J.  De Kleine Profeten.  Vol. 1.  Korte Verklaring Der Heilige Schrift.                                        Kampen: Kok, 1952, 223-226.

 

Vos, G. Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948 (reset, ninth printing                                       1975), 272,273.

 

VII.B.1.           Haldar, A.  Associations of Cultprophets Among the Ancient Semites.  Uppsala:                                      Almqvist & Wiksells, 1945.

 

Johnson, A. R.  The Cultic Prophet in Ancient Israel.  Cardiff: University of

Wales Press, 1962.

 

Motyer, J. A.  "Prophecy, Prophets."  New Bible Dictionary.  J. D. Douglas, Editor.  London: Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1962, 1036-1046.

 

Payne, J. B.  "Prophecy, Prophets." New Bible Dictionary.  Second Edition.  J. D.                                                Douglas, Editor.  Wheaton: Tyndale, 1982, 975-986.

 

Mowinckel, S.  Psalmenstudien,  I-VI.  3rd Study.  Kult prophetie und prophetische Psalmen.  1923.

 

VII.B.2.           Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1952, 95-124.

 

VII.B.3.           Rowley, H. H. The Changing Pattern of Old Testament Studies.  London: The                                           Epworth Press, 1959, 23.

 

Young, E. J.  My Servants the Prophets.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1952, 103.

 

VIII.    THE COMPOSITION OF THE PROPHETIC BOOKS - WERE THE PROPHETS WRITERS?

 

VIII.B.1           Aalders, G. Ch. Oud-Testamentische Kanoniek.  Kampen:   Kok, 1952, 214-221.

 

Allis, O. T.  The Unity of Isaiah.  Philadelphia: The Presbyterian and Reformed

Publishing House, 1950.

 

Driver, S. R.  An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament.  New York:

Meridian Books, 1957 (reprint, originally published 1897), 238,239, 242,243.

 

Freeman, H. E. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody

Press, 1969, 196-203.

 

Kaminka, A.  "Le developpement des idees du prophete Isaie et l'unite de son

livre," Revue des Etudes Juives (Paris) 80 (1924) 42-59, 130-169; 81 (1925) 27-47.

 

LaSor, W. S., Hubbard, D. A., Bush, F. W.  Old Testament Survey.  Grand

Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982, 372-378.

 

Margalioth, R.  The Indivisible Isaiah. Evidence for the Single Authorship of the

Prophetic Book.  New York: Yeshiva University, 1964, 1, 5, 6, 42.

 

Oswalt, J. N.  The Book of Isaiah. Chapters 1-39.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, 1986, 18, 19.

 

Schultz, Richard L.  "How Many Isaiah's Were There and What Does it Matter?" Pp. 150-172 in Evangelicals and Scripture.  V. Bacote, L. D. Miguelez and D. L. Okholm, Editors.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity 2004.

 

Whybray, R. N.  The Second Isaiah.  Old Testament Guides.  Sheffield: JSOT Press,         1983.

 

Young, E. J.  Who Wrote Isaiah?  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1958.

 

       .  The Book of Isaiah.  Vol. III.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972, 538-549

(Appendix I, "The Authorship of Isaiah").

 

VIII.B.2.          Archer, G. L., Jr.  "Modern Rationalism and the Book of Daniel," BibSac 136

                                    (1979) 129-147.

 

 

 

       .  The Aramaic of the Genesis Apocryphon Compared with the Aramaic of

Daniel."  In New Perspectives on the Old Testament.  J. B. Payne, Editor. 

Waco: Word, 1970, 160-169.

 

Baldwin, J. G.  "Some Literary Affinities of the Book of Daniel," TynBul 30

(1979) 77-94.

 

Bullock , C. H.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books.  Chicago: Moody, 1986, 281-292.

 

Davies, P. R.  Daniel.  Old Testament Guides.  Sheffield, JSOT Press, 1985, 31.

 

Fox, D. E.  "Ben Sira on OT Canon Again: The Date of Daniel,"  WTJ 49 (1987)

335-350.

 

Freeman, H. E. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody

Press, 1969, 264-272.

 

Harrison, R. K.  "Daniel, Book of,"  ISBE.  Vol. 1.  G. W. Bromiley, Editor.  Grand           Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979, (Fully revised), 959-866.

 

Kitchen, K. A.  "The Aramaic of Daniel."  In Notes on Some Problems in the

Book of Daniel.  D. J. Wiseman, et.al.  London: Tyndale Press, 1965, 31-79.

 

Waltke, B.  "The Date of the Book of Daniel,"  BibSac 133 (1976) 319-329.

 

Wiseman, D. J. " Some Historical Problems in the Book of Daniel." In Notes on

Some Problems in the Book of Daniel.  D. J. Wiseman, et. al.  London:

Tyndale Press, 1965, 9-18.

 

Yamauchi, E. M. "The Archaeological Background of Daniel,"  BibSac 137

            (1980)             3-16.

 

       .  "Daniel and Contacts Between the Aegean and the Near East Before

Alexander,"  EvQ 53 (1981) 37-47.

 

       .  "The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in the Near

East."  In New Perspectives on the Old Testament.  J. B. Payne, Editor.  Waco: Word, 1970, 170-200.

 

 

 

VIII.C.1.          Nyberg, H. S.  Studien zum Hoseabuch.  Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1935.  See citation in O. Eissfeldt, "The Prophetic Literature," The Old Testament in Modern Study.  H. H. Rowley, Editor.  Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1952, 128.

 

VIII.C.2.          Birkeland, H.J.  Zum hebräischen traditionswesen: die komposition der prophetischen bücher des Alten Testaments.  Oslo: I kommisjon hos J. Dybwad, 1938.  See citation in O. Eissfeldt, "The Prophetic Literature," The Old Testament in Modern Study.  H. H. Rowley, Editor.  Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1952, 129.

 

VIII.C.3.          Nielsen E.  Oral Tradition.  SBT 11.  London: SCM Press, 1954. 

 

 VIII.C.3.b.      Gispen, W. H.  Mondelinge Overlevering in het Oude Testament.  Meppel: 1932.

 

IX.       SOME HERMENEUTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR INTERPRETATION OF THE PROPHETIC WRITINGS

 

Berkhof, L.  Principles of Biblical Interpretation.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1958 ("The Interpretation of Prophecy,"  pp. 148-153).

 

Kaiser, W. C. Jr.  Back Toward the Future.  Hints for Interpreting Biblical Prophecy.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989.

 

Mickelsen, A. B.  Interpreting the Bible.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963 (Chapter 13, "Prophecy," pp. 280-305).

 

Payne, J. B.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  New York: Harper & Row, 1973 ("Introduction: The Interpretation of Biblical Prediction," pp. 1-144; see especially, "A Summary of Basic Principles for the Interpretation of Prophecy," pp. 143-144).

 

Pentecost, J. D.  Things to Come.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1964 (Chapter 4, "The Interpretation of Prophecy," pp. 59-64).

 

Ramm, B.  Protestant Biblical Interpretation.  Boston: W. A. Wilde Company, 1956 ("The Interpretation of Prophecy," 220-253).

 

Terry, M. S.  Biblical Hermeneutics.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, n.d. (Chapter 21, "Prophecy and Its Interpretation," 405-418).

 

 

 

IX.A.1.            Clouse, R. G.  "The Danger of Mistaken Hopes."  In Dreams, Visions and Oracles. C. E. Armerding and  W. W. Gasque, editors.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1977, 27-39.

 

Dyrness, W.  "The Age of Aquarius." In Dreams, Visions and Oracles.  C. E. Armerding and W. W. Gasque, editors.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1977, pp. 15-26.

 

Nichols, Stephen J.  "Prophecy Makes Strange Bedfellows:  On the History of Identifying the Antichrist,"  JETS 44/1 (2001) 75-85.

 

Ross, J. R.  "Living Between Two Ages."  In Dreams, Visions and Oracles.  C. E. Armerding and W. W. Gasque, editors.  Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1977, 231-242.

 

Wilson, D.  Armageddon Now.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1977, 216.

 

IX.A.2.            Mickelsen, A. B.  Interpreting the Bible.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963, 289-292.

 

IX.A.3.            Mickelsen, A. B.  Interpreting the Bible.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963, 292-294.

 

IX.A.4             Berkhof, L.  Principles of Biblical Interpretation.   Grand Rapids: Baker, 1958, 150.

 

Keil, C. F.  Manual of Historico-Critical Introduction to the Canonical Scriptures of the Old Testament.  Vol. 1,  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952 (reprint), 275.

 

IX.A.5.            Davidson, A. B.  Old Testament Prophecy.  Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1904, 167-169.

 

Mickelsen, A. B.  Interpreting the Bible.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963, 295-299.

 

Young, E. J.  The Book of Isaiah.  Vol 1.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 19722, 396-400.     

 

IX.A.6.            Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 116,117.

 

 

Grounds, V.  "Premillennialism and Social Pessimism," Christian Heritage (October, 1974) 22-29.

 

Payne, J. B.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  New  York: Harper & Row, 1973, 62-71.

 

IX.A.7.            Grogan, G.  "The Relationship Between Prophecy and Typology," The Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology 4/1 (1986) 5-16.

 

Mickelsen, A. B.  Interpreting the Bible.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963, 263.

 

Stek, J.  "Biblical Typology Yesterday and Today," CTJ  5/2 (1970) 133-162.

 

Vos, G.  Biblical Theology.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975 (reset for 9th printing), 144-147.

 

IX.B.1.                        Mickelsen, A. B.  Interpreting the Bible.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963, 299-300.

 

IX.B.3.                        Harris, R. L.  "Prophecy, Illustration and Typology."  In Interpretation and History.  R. L. Harris, Swee-Hwa Quek, J. R. Vannoy, Editors.  Singapore: Christian Life Publishers, 1986, 57-66.

 

IX.B.4.                        Alford, H.  The Greek New Testament. Vol. 1.  Chicago: Moody Press 1958 (reprint; original, 1854-1860), 118.

 

Blomberg, C. L.  "Interpreting Old Testament Prophetic Literature in Matthew:  Double Fulfillment," TRINJ 23NS (2002) 17-33.

 

Berkhof, L.  Principles of Biblical Interpretation.   Grand Rapids: Baker, 1958, 58.

 

Bright, J.  The Authority of the Old Testament.  Nashville: Abingdon, 1967, 80-95.

 

Jeremiah, David.  "The Principle of Double Fulfillment in Interpreting Prophecy," GTJ 13/2 (1972) 13-29.

 

Kaiser, W. C., Jr.  Malachi.  God's Unchanging Love.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1984, 34, 104, 107.

 

       .  The Uses of the Old Testament in the New.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1985, 61-76, 77-88.

 

Payne, J. B.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  New  York: Harper & Row, 1973, 121-129.

 

Pentecost, J. D.  Things To Come.  Grand Rapids:   Zondervan, 1971, 46.

 

Ramm, B.  Protestant Biblical Interpretation.  Boston: W. A. Wilde Company, 1956, 88.

 

Scofield, C. I.  "Notes on Daniel."  The Scofield Reference Bible.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1937, 912,913.

 

Sauer, E.  The Dawn of World Redemption.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1951, 145.

 

Terry, M. S.  Biblical Hermeneutics.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, n.d., (Chapter 27, "No Double Sense in             Prophecy") 493-499.

 

IX.B.5.                        Boettner, L.  "Postmillennialism."  In The Meaning of the Millennium: Four Views. R. G. Clouse, Editor.  Downers, Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1977, 134,137.

 

Mickelsen, A. B.  Interpreting the Bible.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963, 303-305.

 

Turner, D. L.  "The Continuity of Scripture and Eschatology:  Key Hermeneutical Issues," GTJ 6/2 (1985) 275-287.

 

X.        THE APOLOGETIC VALUE OF BIBLICAL PROPHECY

 

X.A.                Aalders, G. Ch.  De valsche profetie in IsraĎl.  Academisch Proefschrift.  Wageningen, J. Zomer, Drukkerij Vada, 1911, 190-195.

           

Calvin, J.  Institutes of the Christian Religion.  Vol. 1.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957, 78,79.

 

Fuller, D. And Gardiner, R., “Reformed Theology  at Princeton and Amsterdam in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Reappraisal,” Presbyterion 21 (1995)89-117.

 

Heslam, Peter S.  "Architects of Evangelical Intellectural Thought:  Abraham Kuyper and Benjamin Warfield,"  Themelios 24/2 (1999) 3-20.

 

Keith, A.  Evidence of the Truth of the Christian  Religion Derived from the Literal           Fulfillment of  Prophecy.  New York: Harper & Brothers, 1839.

 

Kuenen, A.  The Prophets and Prophecy in Israel. Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1969 (original Dutch edition, 1875).

 

Machen, J. G.  The Christian Faith in the Modern World. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1947, 61-63.

 

       ,  "Christianity and Culture," The Banner of Truth 69 (1969) 15-24.

 

Neuhaus, “Why We Can Get Along,” First Things 60 (1996) 27-34.

 

Newton, Isaac.  Isaaci Newtoni opera quae exstant omnia.  Vol 5, Section III.  "Observations upon the prophecies of Holy Writ, particularly the prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John."  London: J. Nichols 1785.

 

Urquhart, J.  The Wonders of Prophecy.  Harrisburg: The Christian Alliance Publishing Company, n.d.

 

X.C.                Ramm, B.  Protestant Christian Evidences.  Chicago:  Moody Press, 1953, 81-124 (Chapter 3, "Supernatural Verification through fulfilled Prophecy").

 

X.D.                Fairbairn, P.  Prophecy Viewed in Respect to Its Distinctive Nature, Its Special Function, and Proper Interpretation.  Grand Rapids: Baker, (reprint of 1865 edition) 1976, 198-202.

 

McDowell, J.  Evidence that Demands a Verdict. Historical Evidences for the Christian Faith.  Campus Crusade for Christ, 1972, (Chapter 11, "Prophecy Fulfilled in History") 277-332.

 

 SECTION TWO - A SURVEY OF THE PROPHETICAL BOOKS

 

I.          INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

 

Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 135-137.

 

Motyer, J. A.  "Prophecy, Prophets," New Bible Dictionary.  Second Edition.  Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, 1982, 975-983.

 

 

 

 

II.        OBADIAH

 

II.A.                Armerding, C. E.  "Obadiah."  In The Expositor's Bible Commentary.  Vol. 7.  F. Gaebelein, General Editor.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985, 335-339.

 

Archer, G. L.  A Survey of Old Testament Introduction.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1964, 287-291.

 

Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 140,141.

 

Harrison, R. K.  Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans,

                                    1969,   898-903.

 

Keil, D. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament.  The Twelve Minor Prophets.  Vol. 1.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1954 (reprint), 337-349.

 

Laetsch, T.  Bible Commentary.  The Minor Prophets.  Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1956. 

 

Thompson, J. A.  "Obadiah"  New Bible Dictionary.  Second Edition.  Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, 1982, 851-852.

 

II.C.                 Aalders, G. Ch.  Obadja en Jona.  COT.  Kampen: Kok, 1958, 15, 35, 47-58.

 

Allen, L. C.  The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976, 156.

 

Gabelein, F. E.  Four Minor Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1970.

 

Keil, D. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament.  The Twelve Minor Prophets.  Vol. 1.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1954 (reprint), 363, 367.

 

Laetsch, T.  Bible Commentary.  The Minor Prophets.  Saint Louis: Concordia

Publishing House, 1956, 201, 202, 207.

 

Payne, J. B.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  New  York: Harper & Row, 1973, 131,132, 418-421.

 

       , The Theology of the Older Testament.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1962, 465.

 

 

Hengstenberg, E. W.  Christology of the Old Testament.  Vol. 1.  Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1956  (reprint of 1872 English edition), 400.

 

III.       JOEL.

 

III.A.1.c.         Gasque, W. W.  "Apocalyptic Literature," ZPEB.  Vol. I.  M. Tenney, Editor.

                                    Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 200-204.

 

Harrison, R. K.  Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1969, 1132.

 

Ladd, G. E.  "Why Not Prophetic-Apocalyptic?"  JBL 76 (1957) 192-200.

 

       , "Apocalyptic Literature," ISBE.  Vol. 1.  G. W. Bromiley, General Editor.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979, 151-161.

 

Morris, L.  Apocalyptic.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1972.

 

III.B.1.                        Bullock, C. H. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books.  Chicago: Moody, 1986, 330-331.

 

Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament  Prophets. Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 150-153.

 

Pusey, E. B.  The Minor Prophets.  Vol. 1.  New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1885, 159-221.

 

Ridderbos, J.  De Kleine Profeten.  Vol. 1.  Kampen: Kok, 1952, 126-130.

 

III.B.4.                        Allen, L. C.  The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah.  NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976, 86, 88, 89, 92, 115, 118.

 

Buswell, J. O. Jr.  A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion.  Vol. 2. Grand            Rapids: Zondervan, 1963, 208-210, 417, 418.

 

Calvin, J.  Commentaries on the Twelve Minor Prophets.  Vol. 2.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979 (reprint), 94,95.

 

Fredricks, G. "Rethinking the Role of the Holy Spirit in the Lives of Old Testament Believers," TrinJ 9NS (1988) 81-104.

 

Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament  Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 153, 155, 156.

 

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar.  E. Kautzsch, Editor.  A.E.Cowley, Translator.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910, 111w, 109h.

 

Goldingay, J. “Was the Holy Spirit Active in Old Testament Times?  What was New About the Christian Experience of God?” Ex Auditu 12 (1996) 14-28.

 

Grogan, G. W.  "The Experience of Salvation in the Old and New Testaments,"  Vox Evangelica 6 (1967) 4-26.

 

       .  "The Significance of Pentecost in the History of Salvation,"  SBET 4/2 (1986) 97-107.

 

Keil, D. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament.  The Twelve Minor Prophets.  Vol. 1.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1954 (reprint), 211,212.

 

Payne, J. B.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  New  York: Harper & Row, 1973, 407,408.

 

Ridderbos, J. De Kleine Profeten.  Vol. 1.  KV.  Kampen: Kok, 1952, 146.

 

de Waard, J.  "4QFlorilegium."  Pp. 24-27 in A Comparative Study of the Old Testament Text in the Dead Sea Scrolls and in the New Testament.  STDJ, Vol. 4.  Leiden, Brill, 1965.

 

Wacholder, Ben Zion.  "Who Is the Teacher of Righteousness?"  BR 15/2 (1999) 26-29.

 

Whiting, J. D. "Jerusalem's Locust Plague," National Geographic Magazine 28/6 (1915) 511-551.

 

Wood, L.  The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament.  Grand  Rapids: Zondervan, 1976, 64-77.

 

 

VI.       JONAH

 

IV.B.               Aalders, G. Ch.  The Problem of the Book of Jonah.  London: Tyndale Press, 1948.

 

Alexander, T. D.  "Jonah and Genre," TynBul  36 (1985) 35-60.

 

Allen, L. C.  The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah.  NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976, 176, 178, 179.

 

Ellison, H. L.  The Prophets of Israel.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969, 55,56.

 

Harris, C.  "The Sign of Jonah," ExpTim 7 (1896) 71-72.

 

Gabelein, F. E.  Four Minor Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1970, 134.

 

Lewis, C. S.  Miracles.  London: Fontana, 1947, 121-124.

 

Stek, J. H.  "The Message of the Book of Jonah," CTJ 4 (1969) 23-50.

 

Weiser, A.  The Old Testament: Its Formation and Development.  New York: Association Press, 1961, 251.

 

Wiseman, D. J.  "Jonah's Nineveh," TynBul 30 (1979) 29-51.

 

IV.C.1.                        Bright, J.  A History of Israel.  Third Edition.  Philadelphia: Westminster, 1981, 255,256.

 

Ellison, H. L.  The Prophets of Israel.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969, 58-60.

 

Finegan, J.  Light From the Ancient Past.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959, 202.

 

Stek, J. H.  "The Message of the Book of Jonah," CTJ 4 (1969) 23-50.

 

Wiseman, D. J.  "Jonah's Nineveh," TynBul 30 (1979) 29-51.

 

IV.C.2.                        Laetsch, T.  Bible Commentary.  The Minor Prophets.  Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1956, 243.

 

Payne, J. B.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  New  York: Harper & Row, 1973, 423.

 

Stek, J. H.  "The Message of the Book of Jonah," CTJ 4 (1969) 36,37,41,42.

 

Young, E. J.  An Introduction to the Old Testament.  Revised Edition.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964, 263.

 

 

 

V.        AMOS

 

V.A.4.             Freeman, H. E.  An Introduction to the Old Testament  Prophets.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 187.

 

V.A.5.             Ellison, H. L.  The Prophets of Israel.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969, 64.

 

V.B.3.              Aalders, G. Ch.  Het Herstel van IsraĎl Volgens het Oude Testament.  Kampen: Kok, n.d., 33.

 

Allis, O.T. Prophecy and the Church.  Presbyterian and Reformed: Philadelphia, 1945, 146, 148, 149.

 

Braun, M. A.  "James Use of Amos at the Jerusalem Council: Steps Toward a Possible Solution of the Textual and Theological Problems," JETS 20/2 (1977) 113-122.

 

Cripps, R. S.  A Critical & Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Amos.  London: S.P.C.K., 1969, 67-77.

 

Hillers, D. R.  Treaty Curses and the Old Testament Prophets.  Biblica et Orientalia, 16.  Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1964, 85,88.

 

       , Covenant. The History of a Biblical Idea.  Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1969.

 

Hoekema A. A.  The Bible and the Future.  Grand Rapids:   Eerdmans, 1979, 210.

 

Huffmon, H. B.  "The Covenant Lawsuit in the Prophets," JBL 78 (1959) 285-295.

 

       .  "The Treaty Background of Hebrew Yada`,"   BASOR 181 (1966) 31-37.

 

Kaiser, W. C. Jr. "The Davidic Promise and the Inclusion of the Gentiles (Amos 9:9-15 and Acts 15:13-18): A Test Passage for Theological Systems," JETS 20/2    (1977) 97-112.

 

Keil, C. F.  Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. The Twelve Minor Prophets. Vol. 1.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954 (reprint), 336.

 

Laetsch, T.  Bible Commentary.  The Minor Prophets.  Saint Louis: Concordia      Publishing House, 1956, 191,192.

 

MacRae, A. A. "The Scientific Approach to the Old Testament," BibSac 110 (1953) 309-320.

 

McComiskey, T. E.  "Amos." In The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 7. Frank E. Gaebelein, Editor.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985, 286, 304.

 

Motyer, J. A.  "Amos." In The New Bible Commentary: Revised.  D. Guthrie, J. A. Motyer, Editors. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970, 728, 741.

 

       , The Day of the Lion.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1974, 37, 73, 74, 83, 84, 93.

           

Payne, J. B.  Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy.  New  York: Harper & Row, 1973, 417.

 

Ridderbos, J. De Kleine Profeten.  Vol. 1.  KV.  Kampen: Kok, 1952, 256,257.

 

Thompson, J. A.  "Moab, Moabites," New Bible Dictionary. Second Edition.      Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, 1982, 787.

 

       , The Ancient Near Eastern Treaties and the Old Testament.  London: The Tyndale Press, 1964, 30, 35-37.

 

RECOMMENDED COMMENTARIES ON THE PROPHETIC BOOKS

 

ISAIAH

            Grogan, G. W.  Isaiah.  EBC Vol 6.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.

 

Motyer, J. Alec.  The Prophecy of Isaiah:  An Introduction and Commentary.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1994.

 

            .  Isaiah.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1999.

 

Oswalt, J.  Isaiah 1-39.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.

 

            .  Isaiah 40-66.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

 

Webb, Barry G.  The Message of Isaiah. The Bible Speaks Today.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1996.

 

 

 

 

JEREMIAH

            Thompson, J. A.  The Book of Jeremiah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979.

 

            McConville, J. G.  Judgment and Promise.  An Interpretation of the Book of Jeremiah.  Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1993.

 

EZEKIEL

            Block, D. I.  The Book of Ezekiel 1-24.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.

 

                        .  The Book of Ezekiel 25-48.  NICOT  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

 

            Duguid, I.  Ezekiel.  NIVAC.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999.

 

DANIEL

            Longman, Tremper, III.  Daniel.  NIVAC.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999.

 

            Miller, S. M. Daniel.  NAC.  Nashville: Broadman, 1994.

 

HOSEA

            Garrett, D. A. Hosea, Joel.  NAC.  Nashville, Broadman, 1997.

 

            Hubbard, D. A.  Hosea.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1989.

 

            Kidner, D.  The Message of Hosea: Love to the Loveless.  BST.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1981.

 

            McComiskey, T.  "Hosea."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 1.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.

           

Stuart, D.  Hosea-Jonah.  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1987.

 

JOEL

            Allen, L. C.  Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

 

            Dillard, R. B.  "Joel." In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 1.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.

 

            Garrett, D. A. Hosea, Joel.  NAC.  Nashville, Broadman, 1997.

 

            Hubbard, D. A.  Joel and Amos.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1989.

 

Stuart, D.  Hosea-Jonah.  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1987.

 

AMOS

            Andersen, F. I., and Freedman, D. N.  Amos.  AB.  New York: Doubleday, 1989.

 

Hubbard, D. A.  Joel and Amos.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1989.

 

Motyer, J. A.  Amos: The Day of the Lion.  BST.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1974.

 

Niehaus, J.  "Amos." In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 1.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.

 

Smith, G. V.  Amos: A Commentary.  2nd Ed.  Mentor Commentaries.  Fearn, Ross-shire: Christian Focus, 1998.

 

Stuart, D.  Hosea-Jonah.  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1987.

 

OBADIAH

            Allen, L. C.  Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

 

Baker, D. W., Alexander, T. D.  Waltke, B.G.K.  Obadiah, Jonah, Micah.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988.

 

Niehaus, J.  "Obadiah."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 2.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

 

Stuart, D.  Hosea-Jonah.  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1987.

 

JONAH

            Allen, L. C.  Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

 

Baker, D. W., Alexander, T. D.  Waltke, B.G.K.  Obadiah, Jonah, Micah.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988.

 

Baldwin, J.  "Jonah," In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 2.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

 

Stuart, D.  Hosea-Jonah.  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1987.

 

MICAH

            Allen, L. C.  Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

 

Bailey, W.  "Micah."  In Micah / Nahum / Habbakuk / Zephaniah.  NAC.  Nashville: Holman, 1999.

 

Baker, D. W., Alexander, T. D.  Waltke, B.G.K.  Obadiah, Jonah, Micah.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988.

 

Barker, K. L.  "Micah."  Pp. 21-136 in Micah/Nahum/Habbakuk/Zephaniah.  NAC.  Nashville, Broadman, 1999.

 

Smith, R. L.  Micah-Malachi  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1984.

 

Waltke, B.  "Micah."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 2.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

 

NAHUM

Achtemeier, E.  Nahum-Malachi.  Interp.  Atlanta: John Knox, 1986.

 

Bailey, W.  "Nahum."  Pp. 137-243 in Micah/Nahum/Habbakuk/Zephaniah.  NAC.  Nashville, Broadman, 1999.

 

Baker, D. W.  Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988.

 

Longman, T., III.  "Nahum."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 2.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

 

Robertson, O. P.  The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.

 

Smith, R. L.  Micah-Malachi  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1984.

 

 

HABBAKUK

            Achtemeier, E.  Nahum-Malachi.  Interp.  Atlanta: John Knox, 1986.

 

Bailey, W.  "Habbakuk."  In Micah / Nahum / Habbakuk / Zephaniah.  NAC.  Nashville: Holman, 1999.

 

Baker, D. W.  Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988.

 

Patterson, R.  "Habbakuk."  In Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah.  WEC.  Chicago: Moody, 1991.

           

Robertson, O. P.  The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.

 

Smith, R. L.  Micah-Malachi  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1984.

 

ZEPHANIAH

            Achtemeier, E.  Nahum-Malachi.  Interp.  Atlanta: John Knox, 1986          

 

Bailey, W.  "Zephaniah."  In Micah / Nahum / Habbakuk / Zephaniah.  NAC.  Nashville: Holman, 1999.

 

Baker, D. W.  Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988.

 

Motyer, J. A.  "Zephaniah."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 3.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.

 

Patterson, R.  "Zehapniah."  In Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah.  WEC.  Chicago: Moody, 1991.

 

Robertson, O. P.  The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.

 

Smith, R. L.  Micah-Malachi  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1984.

 

HAGGAI

            Achtemeier, E.  Nahum-Malachi.  Interp.  Atlanta: John Knox, 1986.

 

            Baldwin, J. G.  Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1972.

 

Motyer, J. A.  "Haggai."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 3.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.

 

Smith, R. L.  Micah-Malachi  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1984.

 

Verhoef, P. A.  The Books of Haggai and Malachi.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.

ZECHARIAH

            Achtemeier, E.  Nahum-Malachi.  Interp.  Atlanta: John Knox, 1986.

 

            Baldwin, J. G.  Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1972.

 

McComiskey, T.  "Zechariah."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 3.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.

 

Smith, R. L.  Micah-Malachi  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1984.

 

MALACHI

            Achtemeier, E.  Nahum-Malachi.  Interp.  Atlanta: John Knox, 1986.

 

            Baldwin, J. G.  Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.  TOTC.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1972.

 

            Hill, A. E.  Malachi.  AB. New York: Doubleday, 1998.

 

            Kaiser, W. C.  Malachi: God's Unchanging Love.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984.

 

Smith, R. L.  Micah-Malachi  WBC.  Nashville: Nelson, 1984.

 

Stuart, D.  "Malachi."  In The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expositiory Commentary.  T. McComiskey, Editor.   Vol 3.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.

 

Verhoef, P. A.  The Books of Haggai and Malachi.  NICOT.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.