Last updated: December 2009: Inclusion of syllabus.


Exodus to Exile

OT-550
Class Outline
Winter, 2007

Biblical Theological Seminary

by

J. Robert Vannoy

Emeritus Professor,
Biblical Theological Seminary


This electronic edition was prepared by Dr. David C. Bossard
from original documents.

December, 2007.

Electronic Version Copyright © 2007 by Dr. J. Robert Vannoy. All Rights Reserved.


This course includes the course outline (below), powerpoint slides, and audio lectures.  The slides and audio lectures are keyed to the outline.

 




COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course takes a close look at the deliverance of the children of Israel from bondage in Egypt, their establishment as God's covenant people at Mt. Sinai, and the ways in which the Israelites either embraced or rejected their covenantal obligations from the time they left Mt. Sinai (1400-1200 B.C) until they returned from exile at about 500 BC.  The focus of classroom discussion will be on the narrative material of the Pentateuch, and the books of Joshua, Judges and 1, 2 Samuel.  Included in class discussion and outside assignments is a look at how one is to find meaning for today from Old Testament historical narratives.  Are these narratives to be understood primarily as providing illustrations from the lives of Old Testament rogues or saints of either ungodly or godly behavior that God's people today should either shun or imitate?  Or are these narratives more properly understood as intended to describe how God was at work in the Old Testament period to bring to pass his great plan of redemption?  Or is it some combination of both these perspectives?  How does one’s point of view on these questions affect the way in which contemporary meaning and value is found Old Testament narrative?  While part of the intent of the course is simply familiarization with the content of Old Testament historical narratives and their historical setting in the ancient world, including the light that archaeological findings throw on their literary, historical and social context, the overriding purpose of the course is to discern the theological perspective that comes to expression in some of the greatest narrative literature ever written. The early history of Israel provides important background for the understanding the nature of God’s redemptive work on behalf of his people.  This course provides a survey of Israel’s history as recorded in Exodus through 2 Kings, with special attention given to selected periods.  The course also addresses the hermeneutics of biblical narrative.  Prerequisite: Genesis: Foundations in Biblical History.  Three hours.




Class Syllabus:   web (htm)  word(.doc) Acrobat (pdf)  

Slides for the course:

htm format  pdf format (1.6Mb)
powerpoint (ppt) format.
    Note: truetype fonts "hebrew" and "greek" are used in some of the slides. They are available as shareware from Galaxie.

Class Lectures
Outline
Slide
Lecture 1     part a (1h 20m)  part b (1h 01m)
a: I.A-B.2
b: I.B.2
1-5
Lecture 2     part a  (1h 19m)  part b  (0h 57m) a: I.B.3-E
b: I.E.-F
a: 4,6
b: 8-13
Lecture 3     part a (1h 20m)   part b (1h 06m) a: I.G.-II.C.2.c
b: II.D-II.D.1.e
a:16
b:17-19
Lecture 4     part a  (1h 17m)  part b  (0h 59m) a: II.D.1.e
b: II.D.2.d
a:17-28
b.30
Lecture 5     part a  (1h 21m)  part b  (1h 5m) a: II.D.4.b
b: II.D.6
a.30-33

Lecture 6     part a  (1h 00m)  part b  (1h 00m) a: II.D.12.b.
b. II.H.1.c.
a:38-39
Lecture 7     part a  (1h 00m)  part b   (1h 00m) a: III.B
b: III.C

Lecture 8     part a  (1h 00m)  part b   (1h 00m) a: III.C.3.
b.: IV.A.
a: 41
b: 54
Lecture 9     part a  (1h 00m)  part b   (1h 00m) a: IV.D.2.
b. V.A.
a: 59
b. 60-61
Lecture 10   part a  (1h 00m)  part b   (1h 00m) a: V.C
b. V.C.5.
a: 63-68



Assigned Texts:

E.H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987.

Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Chapter 9, "Preaching Hebrew Narratives," Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988, pp. 188-227.

Sidney Greidanus, "Redemptive History and Preaching," Pro Rege 19/2 (1990) 9-18.

Sidney Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament, Chapter 7 "Steps from Old Testament Text to Christocentric Sermon." Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999, pp. 279-292.





Class Lecture Outline

Lecture annotations in italic
I.    The deliverance from Egypt - Exodus 1-11

A.    The book of Exodus -- Begin Audio Lecture 1a.
           The early history of Israel provides an important background to redemptive history.
B.    The historical setting (the problem of the date of the exodus)
Views on the Date of the Exodus
    Arguments for late date (1250 BC -- 19th dynasty see Slide II):
1. Ex.1:11 -- Built Python and Rameses. Site identification. Slide 3
But: Recent evidence for 18th dynasty construction in the Delta.
          2. Nelson Gleuck "No sedentary population for five centuries prior to 1300 BC in Trans-Jordan." Cf.                 Num. 20:14. Begin Audio Lecture 1b
          3. Cities mentioned in Joshua show destruction levels about 1250-1200 BC
                    -- Lachish, Bethel, Debir, Hebron, Gibeah, Hazor.
4. Joshua does not mention Sethi I and Rameses II campaigns in Canaan
5. The limit for the late date is inscription by Mereneptah c. 1220 BC mentions Israel
    Arguments for early date (1450 BC -- 18th Dynasty see Slide 1)
1. I Ki. 6:1 -- Temple built in 480th year after the Israelites came out of Egypt
2. 18th Dynasty Pharoah Thutmose III was a great builder.
        How could earlier sites be called Rameses?
a. (Archer, ETS 1974) Name Rameses known and used earlier than 19th dynasty.
b. Name is the modernization of an earlier place name -- "The Dutch settled New York City"
    cf. Ex. 14:14 "Pursued as far as Dan" cf. Jud. 18:7,29.
       The lifespan of Moses fits best with the reign of Thutmose III (54 years).
3. References to the Habiru in the Amarna letters to Amenhotep III attacking Canaanite cities.
    But the word seems to designate a social class "wanderers" rather than a particular ethnic group.
    Begin Audio Lecture 2a
4. Excavations at Jericho: John Garstang 1940s, Kathleen Kenyon 1950s, Brian G. Woods 1990s
    But:
1. Chronology of period of Judges harder to reconcile with a late date.
2. Destruction levels arguments are increasingly coming into question.  How many cities did Joshua
    say were completely destroyed? Only two. Hazor destruction at 1400, 1300, 1230.
3. (John Bimson) Middle Bronze age should be lowered by about a century. So Kenyon's 1530 destruction of Jericho becomes 1430.

C.    The oppression - Exodus 1:1-2:25; 5
1. Hard bondage
2. Kill the male children
3. Not supply straw for bricks.
D.    The deliverer - Exodus 3:1-7:13
E.    The plagues - Exodus 7:14-11:10 (Ps 78:43-51, Ps 105 :27-36)
Three groups of 3 plagues with climax in 10th plague. Slide 6.
First in each set has a purpose stated -- to know that the Lord is behind it
Second in each group is announced to Pharoah in his palace.
Last in each group commences without warning
Distinction between Egypt and Goshen in 5 of last 6 plagues.
    Begin Audio Lecture 2b
Religious significance of the plagues. All are gods.
    Pharoah-gods
    Sun-god
    Bulls and Calves --  see slide 8
Significance of sequence of plagues -- slide 9
Hardening of Pharoah's Heart -- slides 10-12. Cf. 3:19
F     The Passover - Exodus 12:1-13:16 -- slide 13
G.    The departure from Egypt and the escape through the Red Sea - Exodus 13:17-15:21. Slide 14,15
   Begin Audio Lecture 3a
Site identification of 
ים סוף (Yam Suph) = Reed Sea (Slides 14,15)

II.    Israel in the wilderness - Exodus 15:22 to the end of Deuteronomy
A.    The importance of this period
Regulations served as a guard against evil
    Foundational law -- 10 commandments
    Civil Law
    Ceremonial Law
Regulations were a mirror to see  one's sinful condition
B.    General features
1.    Redemption is foremost
 Deut 26 (First fruits), Josh 24:17, I Sam 12:6, Micah 6:3ff, Neh 9:9
2.    The promised land was the goal
  Entrance into Canaan typical of rest, fullness of salvation. Heb 4:9
3.    God's supernatural care for His people
4.    The giving of the law
 Deut 4:33-37; 7:7ff;9:4ff
C.    From Egypt to Sinai - Exodus 15:22-18:27
1.    Manna and quails given - Exodus 16
2.    At Rephidim - Exodus 17-18
a.    Water provided Exodus - 17:1-7
b.    Victory over the Amelekites - Exodus 17:8-16
c.    Jethro's advice - Exodus 18
D.    At Sinai - Exodus 19 to Numbers 10:10  Begin Audio Lecture 3b
1.    The establishment of the Sinaitic covenant - Exodus 19 - 24:8
a.    The covenant presented - Exodus 19:3-8
How do you understand the conditional statement "If you obey me fully"?
19:5 "treasured possession" = "to set aside as one's property", slide 16
used by Hittite suzerain (great king) to describe a vassal king as his own possession.
Deut 7:6, 14:2, 26:18; Tit 2:14, 1 Pet 2:9
b.    Arrangements for the declaration of the foundational law - Exodus 19:9-25
c.    The foundational law proclaimed - Exodus 20:1-17
Functions in the context of covenant.
There is not a contrast between OT and NT between law and grace

Kaiser, Towards Old Testament Ethics (1983) 76,77.
    Promissory covenants (unconditional vs. Law covenants (conditional)
Vos, Biblical Theology 126,127.
  
d.    The people's fear - Exodus 20:18-21
e.    The Book of the Covenant - Exodus 20:22 - 23:33
Applications of the foundational law to specific situations.
Worship 20:22-26, rights of Hebrew slaves 21:1-22, property rights 22:1-14.
Case Law format.
Ancient Law Codes that pre-date the Mosaic Law Code: slide 17.
    Comparisons with Mosaic Code:
        Many similarities
- Ex. 21:28-32 ox goring. Law 53-55 of Eshunna code (slide 18-19)
- indirect rather than direct
Differences between Mosaic and Ancient Law Codes (slide 20)
    God used and employed the knowledge that Moses had of ancient laws.
    Inspiration utilized the training that Moses had. cf. Jethro's advice to Moses
    (Ex. 18:16).
Begin Audio Lecture 4a [Slide 20]
    • Idolatry severely condemned
    • Life is respected
    • Physical mutilation in Hamurabi's code law 192, 193, 205
    • Class distinctions not prominent -- slaves protected against abuses
    • Immorality punished severely, marriage protected
    • Widows, fatherless, strangers are protected
     
f.    The covenant formally ratified - Exodus 24:1-11 (slide 21)
2.    Ancient Near Eastern vassal treaties and the Sinaitic covenant
a.    The Hittite treaties (slide 22) Mendenhall, 1954
vassal treaties (Suzerain treaty) between superior and inferior
parity treaty (between equals)
    Treaty between Ramases II and Hattusilas III

b.    Form of the vassal treaties (slide 23)
1. Preamble - identifies author of treaty
2. Historical Prologue - sets the tone and spirit for treaty relationship
• Resume of previous relation
• Emphasize the benevolent acts of the past between the partners
    as basis for trust
3. Basic stipulation - brief clause that summarizes the obligation of loyalty
4. Detailed Stipulation - prohibition of other foreign relationships, annual tribute, etc.
5. Witnesses - gods as witnesses
6. Blessings and Curses - if you obey. . . if you disobey. . .
 c.    The Hittite treaties of the 2nd millennium BC differ in form from later treaties
(7th century Assyrian treaties and 8th century Aramaic treaties) (slide 28)
    Assyrian: ruthless imposition of Assyrian conditions. No blessings, only curses
d.    The treaties and the biblical covenant
Biblical covenant established in Exodus, renewed in Deuteronomy  to provide transition of leadership from Moses to Joshua.  Joshua 24, I Sam. 12 are other renewal covenants 
refs: slide 28
    Kitchen, BAR 21/2 (1995);
    Thompson "Ancient Near East Treaties" 1964.

    Meredith Kline, "Treaty of the Great King" 1963 
Time of the Biblical Treaties:
    Structure follows Hittite treaties of 2nd Century BC. It is different both earlier
    and later.
Begin Audio Lecture 4b
Kline, p.44 "Now that the form critical data compel the recognition of the antiquity not merely of this or that element within Deuteronomy but of the Deteronomic treaty in its integrity, any persistent insistence on a final edition of the book around the seventh century BC can be nothing more than a vestigial hypothesis, no longer performing a significant funcion in Old Testament criticism. Is it too much to hope that modern higher criticism's notorious traditionalism will no longer prove inertial enough to prevent the Deuteronomic bark from setting sail once more for its native port?"
3.    Additional detailed instructions given on the mount - Exodus 24:9-31:18 (slide 30)
a.    Directions for the construction of the tabernacle - Exodus 25:1 to end of 27
b.    Directions for the priesthood - Exodus 28:1 to end of 30
c.    Workmen provided by the LORD - Exodus 31:1-11
d.    The Sabbath stressed - Exodus 31:12-17
e.    The tables of stone - Exodus 31:18
4.    The golden calf - Exodus 32:1 - 35:3
a.    The first great apostasy of Israel - Exodus 32:1-6
b.    Moses' first intercession - Exodus 32:7-14 Begin Audio Lecture 5a
c.    Moses returns to the camp - Exodus 32:15-24
1)    Destruction of the tables of stone
2)    Aaron's lame excuses
d.    Vengeance on the people - Exodus 32:25-29
e.    Further intercession - Exodus 32:30-33:23
f.    The covenant renewed - Exodus 34:1-35
5.    The tabernacle is built - Exodus 35:1-39:43
Vos on Typology (slide 32)
6.    The tabernacle is set up - Exodus 40 (slide 31) Begin Audio Lecture 5b
7.    The book of Leviticus (slide 33)
a.    Name
b.    General comments on content (slide 34)
        mainly ritual legislation.
      - circumstances under which a sacrifice can be brought
      - kind of sacrifices
      - qualifications of priests
      - detailed laws regarding sexual chastity
      - laws concerning ritual cleanness and uncleanness.
8.    Laws regarding sacrifice - Leviticus 1-7
How sinful people can approach a holy God and be assured of acceptance Lev. 17:11
Substitutionary atonement by blood sacrifice.
9.    Consecration of priests - Leviticus 8-9
10.   The rebellion of Nadab and Abihu - Leviticus 10
Exact nature of "unauthorized fire" is not described.
    Coals not from Burnt offering? (9:24)
    Formulation of the incense? (Ex 30:34-38
    Drunkenness involved?
11.    Other laws - Leviticus 11-27 (including the Day of Atonement, Leviticus 16,
    major annual festivals Passover, Feast of Weeks, Feast of Tabernacles)
12.    Preparation for leaving Sinai - Numbers 1:1-10:10 (slide 35)
a.    The book of Numbers       
1)    Name (slide 39)
2)    Content - chronological framework for the book
b.    The men of war numbered and positions assigned - Numbers 1:1-2:24 (slide 38)
600,000 men implies population about 2 million by direct inference.
        Cf. Deut. 7, "Seven nations larger and stronger than you."
        Deut 11:23 
        Ex. 23:29 "I will not drive them out in a single year" implies small size.
How to understand census numbers: approaches --
    1. Translation accepted: MacRae, Young
    2. No value in numbers - artificially contrived
    3. Alternate  understanding of the text -- problem of translation.
Flinders Petrie: eleph = "thousand" or "tent group" or clan" Jud 6:15
"my clan (eleph) is the weakest in Manasseh" I Sam 10:19 "Present yourselves by tribes and clans (elephim)"
So, in Numbers "32 elephim" may be 32 tent groups, not 32,000.
But this doesn't explain the summations
    4. Repointing to get different word.
    5. Wenham, "Large Numbers in the OT" 1967. "specially trained warriers"
Jericho was 7 acres, about 2500 inhabitants. Lachish 18 acres, Gibeon 16, Nevido 13 acres, Ai 27 acres, Ramases II's armies about 20,000. 
Is there something going on in these census figures? Probably. "Old Testament numerical computations rest upon some basis of reality which was quite familiar to the ancients, but which is unknown to modern scholars." R.K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, 1969.
Begin Audio Lecture 6a
c.    The Levites are numbered and their duties assigned - Numbers 3:1-4:49
d.    The law of jealousy - Numbers 5:11-31
Trial by ordeal. Cf. Law of Hammurabi -- But important difference.
Here: assumed innocence unless proved guilty. Trial is not harmful in itself.
Hammurabi, etc: An assumption of guilt. Trial is harmful (e.g. walking over fire).
e.    The law of the Nazarite - Numbers 6:1-21 Nazer = separate.
Not obligatory. Available to anyone (man or woman from any tribe).
f.    The offering of the princes at the dedication of the altar - Numbers 7:1-89
g.    The second passover after leaving Egypt - Numbers 9:1-14
h.    Divine provision for direction and guidance - Numbers
            9:15-10:10
E.    From Sinai to the Plains of Moab - Numbers 10:11-22:1
1.    The first stage of the journey - Numbers 10:11-36
2.    Rebellion and dissatisfaction - Numbers 11:1-12:16
3.    The twelve spies - Numbers 13:1-14:45
4.    Laws after the crisis - Numbers 15:1-41
5.    The rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram - Numbers 16-19
6.    Incidents on the way to the Plains of Moab - Numbers 20-22:1
a.    The death of Miriam - Numbers 20:1
b.    The sin of Moses and Aaron - Numbers 20:2-13
c.    Edom's refusal to allow passage - Numbers 20:14-21
d.    The death of Aaron - Numbers 20:22-29
e.    Victory over Arad - Numbers 21:1-3
f.    The brazen serpent incident - Numbers 21:4-9
g.    March around Moab - Numbers 21:10-20
h.    Victory over Sihon - Numbers 21:21-32
i.    Victory over Og, King of Bashan - Numbers 21:33-35   
j.    Arrival in the Plains of Moab - Numbers 22:1
F.    The Balaam incident - Numbers 22-25:18
Kingship is anticipated 23:21 and 24:17-19.
G.    Preparations for entrance into Canaan - Numbers 26:1-36:13
1.    A new census - Numbers 26
2.    A special problem regarding inheritance - Numbers 27:1-11
3.    Appointment of a new leader for the conquest of Canaan - Numbers 27:1-11
4.    Laws regarding sacrifice and vows - Numbers 28-30
5.    Vengeance on the Midianites - Numbers 31
6.    Apportionment of Trans-Jordan - Numbers 32
7.    Summary of journeys - Numbers 33:1-49
8.    Plans for division of Canaan - Numbers 33:50-36:13
H.    Moses' last days
1.    The Book of Deuteronomy
a.    Its name
1. Not a second law, in any way that is inconsistent or contrary to the law given at Sinai, but a re-statement of the law.
2. Not just a repetition
    DSS and Samaritan Pentateuch seem to try to minimize the differences.
b.    The significance of Deuteronomy in the Old Testament canon
Schultz, Deuteronomy, The Gospel of Love (1971) "The book of Deuteronomy is the most important book in the Old Testament from the standpoint of God's revelation to man. . . It is one of the books most frequently cited and referred to in the NT"
Love is at the heart of the message. Deut 6:4-5; 10:12ff; 30:11-20.
Deut 11 is in the basic covenant stipulation form. Deut 12 is detailed descriptions.
c.    Date Begin Audio Lecture 6b
Date is a big issue.
Form of international treaties changed over time. Deuteronomy corresponds to the classic form. Hence early date at time of conquest. Most scholars follow later date.
DeWette 1805 proposed Deuteronomy identified with book of the law found by     Josiah. Written by the contemporaries of Josiah and attributed to Moses.
Wellhausen adopted this view.  Evolutionary development of religion: polytheism to centralized worship of one god, to monotheism. Hence all books that have Deuteronomistic influence must be after 621 BC (such as Joshua-Kings).
2.    The death of Moses - Deuteronomy 34

III.    The Book of Joshua
A.    Introductory remarks
1.    Basic theme and structure
a. Establishment of Israel in the Promised Land: Entrance, Conquest, Division of the land.
b. The Land is a gift of God to his people, and it will be possessed only by means of God's help and his grace.
c. "Serve the Lord" is theme through the book. Josh 24:31.
overall impression of optimism -- somewhat like the book of Acts.
2.    Primary character -- Joshua. Num 13:8 (slide 40)
"The LORD is Salvation" = LXX Jesus.
3.    External evidence for historical events recorded in Joshua
Not much archaeological evidence (Must of Jericho in-situ evidence destroyed by
early archaeological excavations)
a. tel-el-Amarna tablets (~1400 BC) reference to "Habairu"
b. Mereneptha Stele (~1220 BC) mentions Hebrews
c. Destruction levels (mostly  ~1250-1200 BC)
4.    Contemporary approaches to the establishment of Israel in Canaan. [see handout]
a.    Traditional view: the conquest model
b.    Migration model
c.    Peasant revolt model
What drives this is using sociological models to recreate history rather than accepting the
text of Joshua as a legitimate historical source. The direction of OT studies today is to say
that whatever is said historically has to be based on archaeological evidence. You don't go to the biblical text as the a source of historical information.

B.    The entry into Canaan - Joshua 1:1-5:12 Begin Audio Lecture 7a
1.    Joshua's commission - Joshua 1:1-9
2.    The people mobilized - Joshua 1:10-18
3.    The sending of spies to Jericho - Joshua 2
How to evaluate the conduct of Rahab? 
    Heb. 11:31 By faith Rahab...
    James 2:25 Rahab considered righteous.
What does it mean to bear false witness? Was Rahab guilty of this?
Adhering to the letter of the law may violate the spirit of the law!
4.    Crossing over Jordan - Joshua 3:1-5:1
5.    Circumcision and encampment at Gilgal - Joshua 5:2-12
Israel under God's judgment for years in wilderness Num 14:34 Ps 95:10 cf Ex 12:48
Perhaps circumcision and Passover were not celebrated for this time.

C.    The conquest of Canaan - Joshua 5:13-12:24 Begin Audio Lecture 7b
1.    The conquest of Jericho - Joshua 6
2.    The attack on Ai - Joshua 7-8 (slides 42,43)
3.    Renewal of the covenant at Shechem - Joshua 8:30-35 Begin Audio Lecture 8a

Instructions for renewal: Deut 11:26-30, Deut 27:1-8
4.    The southern campaign - Joshua 9-10 (slide 51)
9:7 cut a covenant -- standard treaty form
Sun stands still Joshua 10:12-13 (slide 44-49). Options:
1. Legend
2. Poetic narrative Judges 5:20,
   cf: "mountains skip" "trees clap their hands"
    Judg 5:20 "stars fight against Sisera"
3. Literal and historically reliable
   How happen physically? Possibilities:
      a. Cessation of earth movement
      b. Miracle of refraction of light
      c. Prolongation of darkness (Blair, Joshua 1970) (cf map, slide 50)
   - but what did Joshua ask for? Prolongation of light? Prolongation of darkness?
• "sun  stood still" could be translated "sun ceased" (slide 45) 
Cf. 2 K 4:6 the oil ceased, Jonah 1:15 the sea ceased  (slide 46)
• "sun go down" could be "sun enter" or "sun come" (slide 47)
• "about a whole day" could be "as one day is done" (slide 48)
conclude: Joshua prayed for a cessation of light.
Storm prolonged darkness (hailstones)
5.    The northern campaign - Joshua 11:1-20
Hamstrung horses -- Principle: 2 Sam 15:1, Ps 20:7, Isa 2:7  Isa 31:1
God provided the victory, not military might.
6.    Summary of the conquest - Joshua 11:21-12:24
D.    The division of the land - Joshua 13-22
E.    Joshua's last days - Joshua 23-24 (slide 53)
Handout: Vannoy, The Theology of Joshua.
Divine initiatives and closing
   
• Cross -- the Jordan ... closing: Circumcision 1:1-5:12
    • Take -- the conquest ... closing: Review of victory
    • Divide -- closing: Division of Canaan (13-21). Central point: Tent at Shiloh
    • Serve  --
Extermination of inhabitants -- irrevocable giving to God.
    Gen 15:16 -- it is God's judgment not Israel's. Not "Holy War" but "Jahweh War"
    Not "arrested evolution in the ethical sphere" but "anticipated eschatology"  [words of Meredith Kline]
    Not ethically subpar but the Day of the Lord in a small form that will be realized in the full and complete sense at the coming of the Lord.

IV.    The Book of Judges Begin Audio Lecture 8b  Handout: The Theology of Judges
A.    Introductory remarks (slide 54)
"The Canaanization of Israel" Ps 106:34ff, Neh 9:27
        Nature gods with emphasis on fertility.
        Transition from sheep-herding to tilling the soil. 2 K 13:23

B.    Chronology - survey of the problem (slide 55-58)
C.    The Ancient Near Eastern situation from 1200-1050
Levant free from serious external forces
    Period of Egyptian weakness -- lost control of their holdings outside of Egypt
    Hittite Empire also collapsed from enemies in Asia Minor (Modern Turkey). Hittites gone by 1200
    Assyria (Mesopotamia) also in a period of weakness.
D.    The structure and content of Judges
1.    The historical background for the period to be described further in the book - Judges 1:1-2:5
As the tribes went in to settle down in their possessions, most did not follow up to conquer
their territory.

2.    The theological basis for the proper understanding of the book of Judges - Judges 2:6-3:4
Cycle of turning away from the Lord, oppression (sometimes repentance), and deliverance through judges.
Begin Audio Lecture 9a
from Theology of Judges: Commentators have often suggested that this cycle is rebellion, retribution, repentance, rescue. A closer look reveals that there is no mention in this prolog of repentance.  
3.    The stories of the major and minor judges - Judges 3:5-16:31 (slide 59)
a.    The major and minor judges
b.    Brief comments on outstanding judges
1)    Deborah and Barak - Judges 4-5
2)    Gideon - Judges 6-8
3)    Jephthah - Judges 10:6-12:7
4)    Samson - Judges 13:1-16:31 [handout notes]
4.    The spiritual and moral deterioration in the time of the judges illustrated - Judges 17-21
a.    Micah's private sanctuary is robbed of its idols and priest- Judges 17-18
b.    Civil war against Benjamin occasioned by the sexual abuse and murder of a woman - Judges 19-21
Begin Audio Lecture 9b
(slide 60)

V.    The Books of 1,2 Samuel [Expanded Outline V.A., V.B., V.C.5ff]
A.    General Comments
1.    Name 
Anonymous author but used written records of Samuel, Nathan and Gad - 1 Chr. 29:29
2.    A brief survey of content and its significance
B.    Important advances in the history of redemption in 1,2 Samuel
C.    The life of Samuel Begin Audio Lecture 10a   [See Expanded Outline]
1.    Ancestry and youth - 1 Samuel 1-3
a. The Birth of Samuel 1:1-28
Combined functions of both prophet and judge.
    Samuel was the last and greatest of the judges.  Acts 13:20.
    Samuel was the first in the line of prophets subsequent to the death of Moses. Acts 3:2.
Ranked along with Moses Jer. 15:1
b. Hanna's Song 2:1-10
One of the great prayers of praise in Scripture. Compare with Mary's Magnificat.
c. Judgment on the house of Eli 2:11-36
    Four comments about Samuel
        1) 2:11 The Boy ministered
        2) 2:18 Samuel ministering
wearing the Ephod
        3) 2:21 Samuel grew up in presence of the LORD
        4) 2:26 Samuel continued to grow in stature
d. Call of Samuel 3
3:7 Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD in the sense of divine revelation.
2.    The loss and subsequent return of the ark - 1 Samuel 4:1-6:21
ark becomes a talisman to manipulate God. This is a heathen idea.
3.    The victory at Eben-ezer - 1 Samuel 7:1-14
4.    Samuel is established as a leader in Israel - 1 Samuel 7:15-17
5.    The establishment of kingship and covenant continuity - 1 Samuel 8-12
See expanded outline.
Begin Audio Lecture 10b
Literary Criticism of 1 Sam 8-12 (slide 66)
6.    Samuel rejects Saul - 1 Samuel 13,15
7.    Samuel's death and "appearance" to Saul - 1 Samuel 25, 28

VI.    The united kingdom
A.    Saul
B.    David
C.    Solomon

VII.    The divided kingdom
A.    1, 2 Kings
1.    Name and scope of content
2.    Purpose
3.    Structure
B.    1, 2 Chronicles
 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY KEYED TO CLASS LECTURE OUTLINE (web)

CITATIONS KEYED TO CLASS LECTURE OUTLINE (pdf)





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Last updated: January, 2008.