A. The book of Exodus
Audio Lecture 1a.
The early history of Israel provides an
important background to redemptive history
B. The historical setting (the problem of the date of
on the Date of the Exodus
Arguments for late
date (1250 BC -- 19th dynasty see Slide II):
Ex.1:11 -- Built Python and Rameses. Site identification. Slide 3
Recent evidence for 18th dynasty construction in the Delta.
2. Nelson Gleuck "No sedentary population for five
centuries prior to 1300 BC in Trans-Jordan." Cf.
Num. 20:14. Begin
Audio Lecture 1b
3. Cities mentioned in Joshua show destruction levels
about 1250-1200 BC
-- Lachish, Bethel, Debir,
Hebron, Gibeah, Hazor.
Joshua does not mention Sethi I and Rameses II campaigns in Canaan
early date (1450 BC -- 18th Dynasty see Slide 1)
5. The limit for the late date is inscription by Mereneptah c. 1220 BC
Ki. 6:1 -- Temple built in 480th year after the Israelites came out of
2. 18th Dynasty Pharoah Thutmose III was a great builder.
How could earlier sites be called
(Archer, ETS 1974) Name Rameses known and used earlier than 19th
b. Name is the modernization of an earlier place name -- "The Dutch
settled New York City"
cf. Ex. 14:14 "Pursued as far as Dan" cf. Jud.
The lifespan of Moses fits best with the reign of Thutmose III (54
3. References to the Habiru in the
Amarna letters to Amenhotep III attacking Canaanite cities.
But the word seems to designate a social class
"wanderers" rather than a particular ethnic group.
Audio Lecture 2a
4. Excavations at Jericho: John Garstang 1940s, Kathleen Kenyon 1950s,
Brian G. Woods 1990s
Chronology of period of Judges harder to reconcile with a late date.
2. Destruction levels arguments are increasingly coming into
question. How many cities did Joshua
say were completely destroyed? Only two. Hazor
destruction at 1400, 1300, 1230.
3. (John Bimson) Middle Bronze age should be lowered by about a
century. So Kenyon's 1530 destruction of Jericho becomes 1430.
C. The oppression - Exodus 1:1-2:25; 5
1. Hard bondage
2. Kill the male children
3. Not supply straw for bricks.
D. The deliverer - Exodus 3:1-7:13
E. The plagues - Exodus 7:14-11:10 (Ps 78:43-51, Ps 105 :27-36)
groups of 3 plagues with climax in 10th plague. Slide 6.
First in each set
has a purpose stated -- to know that the Lord is behind it
Second in each group is announced to Pharoah in his palace.
Last in each group commences without warning
between Egypt and Goshen in 5 of last 6 plagues.
Audio Lecture 2b
significance of the plagues. All are gods.
Bulls and Calves -- see slide 8
Significance of sequence of plagues -- slide 9
Hardening of Pharoah's Heart -- slides 10-12. Cf. 3:19
F The Passover - Exodus 12:1-13:16 -- slide 13
G. The departure from Egypt and the escape through
the Red Sea - Exodus 13:17-15:21. Slide 14,15
Audio Lecture 3a
Site identification of ים סוף (Yam Suph) = Reed Sea (Slides 14,15)
A. The importance of
served as a guard against evil
Foundational law -- 10 commandments
Regulations were a mirror to see one's sinful condition
B. General features
1. Redemption is
26 (First fruits), Josh 24:17, I Sam 12:6, Micah 6:3ff, Neh 9:9
2. The promised land was the goal
Entrance into Canaan typical of rest,
fullness of salvation. Heb 4:9
3. God's supernatural care for His people
4. The giving of the law
C. From Egypt to Sinai - Exodus 15:22-18:27
1. Manna and quails
given - Exodus 16
2. At Rephidim - Exodus 17-18
a. Water provided
Exodus - 17:1-7
b. Victory over the Amelekites - Exodus 17:8-16
c. Jethro's advice - Exodus 18
D. At Sinai - Exodus 19 to Numbers 10:10 Begin
Audio Lecture 3b
1. The establishment
of the Sinaitic covenant - Exodus 19 - 24:8
a. The covenant
presented - Exodus 19:3-8
do you understand the conditional statement "If you obey me fully"?
19:5 "treasured possession" = "to set
aside as one's property", slide 16
used by Hittite suzerain (great king) to describe a vassal king as his
Deut 7:6, 14:2, 26:18; Tit 2:14, 1 Pet 2:9
b. Arrangements for the declaration of the
foundational law - Exodus 19:9-25
c. The foundational law proclaimed - Exodus
in the context of covenant.
There is not a contrast between OT and NT between law and grace
Kaiser, Towards Old Testament Ethics
Promissory covenants (unconditional vs. Law
Vos, Biblical Theology 126,127.
d. The people's fear - Exodus 20:18-21
e. The Book of the Covenant - Exodus 20:22 - 23:33
of the foundational law to specific situations.
Worship 20:22-26, rights of Hebrew slaves 21:1-22, property rights
Case Law format.
Ancient Law Codes that pre-date the Mosaic Law Code: slide 17.
Comparisons with Mosaic Code:
21:28-32 ox goring. Law 53-55 of Eshunna code (slide 18-19)
Differences between Mosaic and
Ancient Law Codes (slide 20)
- indirect rather than direct
God used and employed the knowledge that Moses had
of ancient laws.
Inspiration utilized the training that Moses had.
cf. Jethro's advice to Moses
(Ex. 18:16). Begin
Audio Lecture 4a
Idolatry severely condemned
• Life is respected
mutilation in Hamurabi's code law 192, 193, 205
• Class distinctions not prominent -- slaves
protected against abuses
• Immorality punished severely, marriage protected
• Widows, fatherless, strangers are protected
f. The covenant formally ratified - Exodus 24:1-11 (slide 21)
2. Ancient Near
Eastern vassal treaties and the Sinaitic covenant
a. The Hittite
treaties (slide 22) Mendenhall, 1954
treaties (Suzerain treaty) between superior and inferior
parity treaty (between equals)
Treaty between Ramases II and Hattusilas III
b. Form of the vassal treaties (slide 23)
Preamble - identifies author of treaty
2. Historical Prologue - sets the
tone and spirit for treaty relationship
• Resume of
Basic stipulation - brief clause that summarizes the obligation of
• Emphasize the benevolent acts of the past between the partners
as basis for trust
4. Detailed Stipulation - prohibition
of other foreign relationships, annual tribute, etc.
5. Witnesses - gods as witnesses
6. Blessings and Curses - if you obey. . . if you disobey. . .
c. The Hittite treaties of the 2nd millennium
differ in form from later treaties
(7th century Assyrian treaties and 8th
century Aramaic treaties) (slide 28)
Assyrian: ruthless imposition of Assyrian
conditions. No blessings, only curses
d. The treaties and the biblical covenant
covenant established in Exodus, renewed in Deuteronomy to provide
transition of leadership from Moses to Joshua. Joshua 24, I Sam.
12 are other renewal covenants
refs: slide 28
Kitchen, BAR 21/2 (1995);
Thompson "Ancient Near East Treaties" 1964.
"Treaty of the Great King" 1963
Time of the Biblical Treaties:
Structure follows Hittite treaties of 2nd Century
BC. It is different both earlier
Audio Lecture 4b
Kline, p.44 "Now that the form critical data compel the recognition of
the antiquity not merely of this or that element within Deuteronomy but
of the Deteronomic treaty in its integrity, any persistent insistence
on a final edition of the book around the seventh century BC can be
nothing more than a vestigial hypothesis, no longer performing a
significant funcion in Old Testament criticism. Is it too much to hope
that modern higher criticism's notorious traditionalism will no longer
prove inertial enough to prevent the Deuteronomic bark from setting
sail once more for its native port?"
detailed instructions given on the mount - Exodus 24:9-31:18 (slide 30)
a. Directions for the
construction of the tabernacle - Exodus 25:1 to end of 27
b. Directions for the priesthood - Exodus 28:1 to end
c. Workmen provided by the LORD - Exodus 31:1-11
d. The Sabbath stressed - Exodus 31:12-17
e. The tables of stone - Exodus 31:18
4. The golden calf -
Exodus 32:1 - 35:3
a. The first great
apostasy of Israel - Exodus 32:1-6
b. Moses' first intercession - Exodus 32:7-14 Begin
Audio Lecture 5a
c. Moses returns to the camp - Exodus 32:15-24
1) Destruction of the
tables of stone
2) Aaron's lame excuses
d. Vengeance on the people - Exodus 32:25-29
e. Further intercession - Exodus 32:30-33:23
f. The covenant renewed - Exodus 34:1-35
5. The tabernacle is
built - Exodus 35:1-39:43
on Typology (slide 32)
6. The tabernacle is set up - Exodus 40 (slide 31) Begin
Audio Lecture 5b
7. The book of Leviticus (slide 33)
b. General comments on content (slide 34)
mainly ritual legislation.
- circumstances under which a sacrifice can be brought
- kind of
qualifications of priests
laws regarding sexual chastity
concerning ritual cleanness and uncleanness.
8. Laws regarding
sacrifice - Leviticus 1-7
sinful people can approach a holy God and be assured of acceptance Lev.
Substitutionary atonement by blood sacrifice.
9. Consecration of priests - Leviticus 8-9
10. The rebellion of Nadab and Abihu - Leviticus 10
nature of "unauthorized fire" is not described.
Coals not from Burnt offering? (9:24)
Formulation of the incense? (Ex 30:34-38
11. Other laws - Leviticus 11-27 (including the Day
of Atonement, Leviticus 16,
major annual festivals Passover, Feast of Weeks,
Feast of Tabernacles)
12. Preparation for leaving Sinai - Numbers 1:1-10:10
a. The book of
1) Name (slide 39)
2) Content - chronological framework for the book
b. The men of war
numbered and positions assigned - Numbers 1:1-2:24 (slide 38)
men implies population about 2 million by direct inference.
Cf. Deut. 7, "Seven nations
larger and stronger than you."
Ex. 23:29 "I will not drive them
out in a single year" implies small size.
How to understand census numbers: approaches --
1. Translation accepted: MacRae, Young
2. No value in numbers - artificially contrived
3. Alternate understanding of the text --
problem of translation.
Petrie: eleph = "thousand" or "tent group" or clan" Jud 6:15
"my clan (eleph) is
the weakest in Manasseh" I Sam 10:19 "Present yourselves by tribes and clans (elephim)"
So, in Numbers "32 elephim" may be 32 tent groups, not 32,000.
But this doesn't explain the summations
4. Repointing to get different word.
5. Wenham, "Large
Numbers in the OT" 1967. "specially trained warriers"
Jericho was 7 acres, about 2500 inhabitants. Lachish 18 acres, Gibeon
16, Nevido 13 acres, Ai 27 acres, Ramases II's armies about
Is there something going on in these census figures? Probably. "Old
Testament numerical computations rest upon some basis of reality which
was quite familiar to the ancients, but which is unknown to modern
scholars." R.K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, 1969.
Audio Lecture 6a
c. The Levites are numbered and their duties assigned
- Numbers 3:1-4:49
d. The law of jealousy - Numbers 5:11-31
by ordeal. Cf. Law of Hammurabi -- But important difference.
Here: assumed innocence unless proved guilty. Trial is not harmful in
Hammurabi, etc: An assumption of guilt. Trial is harmful (e.g. walking
e. The law of the Nazarite - Numbers 6:1-21 Nazer = separate.
obligatory. Available to anyone (man or woman from any tribe).
f. The offering of the princes at the dedication of
the altar - Numbers 7:1-89
g. The second passover after leaving Egypt - Numbers
h. Divine provision for direction and guidance -
E. From Sinai to the Plains of Moab - Numbers
1. The first stage of
the journey - Numbers 10:11-36
2. Rebellion and dissatisfaction - Numbers 11:1-12:16
3. The twelve spies - Numbers 13:1-14:45
4. Laws after the crisis - Numbers 15:1-41
5. The rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram -
6. Incidents on the way to the Plains of Moab -
a. The death of
Miriam - Numbers 20:1
b. The sin of Moses and Aaron - Numbers 20:2-13
c. Edom's refusal to allow passage - Numbers 20:14-21
d. The death of Aaron - Numbers 20:22-29
e. Victory over Arad - Numbers 21:1-3
f. The brazen serpent incident - Numbers 21:4-9
g. March around Moab - Numbers 21:10-20
h. Victory over Sihon - Numbers 21:21-32
i. Victory over Og, King of Bashan - Numbers
j. Arrival in the Plains of Moab - Numbers 22:1
F. The Balaam incident - Numbers 22-25:18
is anticipated 23:21 and 24:17-19.
G. Preparations for entrance into Canaan - Numbers
1. A new census -
2. A special problem regarding inheritance - Numbers
3. Appointment of a new leader for the conquest of
Canaan - Numbers 27:1-11
4. Laws regarding sacrifice and vows - Numbers 28-30
5. Vengeance on the Midianites - Numbers 31
6. Apportionment of Trans-Jordan - Numbers 32
7. Summary of journeys - Numbers 33:1-49
8. Plans for division of Canaan - Numbers 33:50-36:13
H. Moses' last days
1. The Book of
a. Its name
Not a second law, in any way that is inconsistent or contrary to the
law given at Sinai, but a
re-statement of the law.
2. Not just a repetition
DSS and Samaritan Pentateuch seem to try to minimize
b. The significance of Deuteronomy in the Old
Deuteronomy, The Gospel of Love (1971) "The book of Deuteronomy is the
most important book in the Old Testament from the standpoint of God's
revelation to man. . . It is one of the books most frequently cited and
referred to in the NT"
Love is at the heart of the message. Deut 6:4-5; 10:12ff; 30:11-20.
Deut 11 is in the basic covenant stipulation form. Deut 12 is detailed
c. Date Begin
Audio Lecture 6b
is a big issue.
Form of international treaties
changed over time. Deuteronomy corresponds to the classic form. Hence
early date at time of conquest. Most scholars follow later date.
DeWette 1805 proposed Deuteronomy
identified with book of the law found by Josiah.
Written by the contemporaries of Josiah and attributed to Moses.
Wellhausen adopted this view. Evolutionary development of
religion: polytheism to centralized worship of one god, to monotheism.
Hence all books that have Deuteronomistic influence must be after 621
BC (such as Joshua-Kings).
2. The death of Moses
- Deuteronomy 34
1. Basic theme and
Establishment of Israel in the Promised Land: Entrance, Conquest, Division of the land.
b. The Land is a gift of God to his people, and it will be possessed
only by means of God's help and his grace.
c. "Serve the Lord" is theme through the book. Josh 24:31.
overall impression of optimism -- somewhat like the book of Acts.
2. Primary character
-- Joshua. Num 13:8 (slide 40)
LORD is Salvation" = LXX Jesus.
3. External evidence for historical events recorded
much archaeological evidence (Must of Jericho in-situ evidence
early archaeological excavations)
a. tel-el-Amarna tablets (~1400 BC) reference to "Habairu"
b. Mereneptha Stele (~1220 BC) mentions Hebrews
c. Destruction levels (mostly ~1250-1200 BC)
4. Contemporary approaches to the establishment of
Israel in Canaan. [see handout]
a. Traditional view:
the conquest model
b. Migration model
c. Peasant revolt model
What drives this is using
sociological models to recreate history rather than accepting the
text of Joshua as a legitimate historical source. The direction of OT
studies today is to say
that whatever is said historically has to be based on archaeological
evidence. You don't go to the biblical text as the a source of
B. The entry into Canaan - Joshua 1:1-5:12 Begin
Audio Lecture 7a
commission - Joshua 1:1-9
2. The people mobilized - Joshua 1:10-18
3. The sending of spies to Jericho - Joshua 2
to evaluate the conduct of Rahab?
Heb. 11:31 By faith Rahab...
James 2:25 Rahab considered righteous.
What does it mean to bear false witness? Was Rahab guilty of this?
Adhering to the letter of the law may violate the spirit of the law!
4. Crossing over Jordan - Joshua 3:1-5:1
5. Circumcision and encampment at Gilgal - Joshua
Israel under God's judgment for years in
wilderness Num 14:34 Ps 95:10 cf Ex 12:48
Perhaps circumcision and Passover were not celebrated for this time.
C. The conquest of Canaan - Joshua 5:13-12:24 Begin
Audio Lecture 7b
1. The conquest of
Jericho - Joshua 6
2. The attack on Ai - Joshua 7-8 (slides 42,43)
of the covenant at Shechem - Joshua
Audio Lecture 8a
for renewal: Deut 11:26-30, Deut 27:1-8
4. The southern campaign - Joshua 9-10 (slide 51)
cut a covenant -- standard treaty form
stands still Joshua 10:12-13 (slide 44-49). Options:
Poetic narrative Judges 5:20,
cf: "mountains skip" "trees clap their hands"
Judg 5:20 "stars fight against Sisera"
Literal and historically reliable
How happen physically? Possibilities:
a. Cessation of earth movement
b. Miracle of refraction of light
c. Prolongation of darkness (Blair, Joshua 1970) (cf map, slide
- but what did Joshua ask for? Prolongation of light? Prolongation of
"sun stood still" could be translated "sun ceased" (slide
K 4:6 the oil ceased,
Jonah 1:15 the sea ceased
"sun go down" could be "sun enter" or "sun come" (slide 47)
"about a whole day" could be "as one day is done" (slide 48)
Joshua prayed for a cessation of light.
prolonged darkness (hailstones)
5. The northern campaign - Joshua 11:1-20
horses -- Principle: 2 Sam 15:1, Ps 20:7, Isa 2:7 Isa 31:1
provided the victory, not military might.
6. Summary of the conquest - Joshua 11:21-12:24
D. The division of the land - Joshua 13-22
E. Joshua's last days - Joshua 23-24 (slide 53)
Vannoy, The Theology of Joshua.
initiatives and closing
• Cross --
the Jordan ... closing: Circumcision 1:1-5:12
• Take -- the conquest ... closing: Review of victory
• Divide -- closing: Division of Canaan (13-21).
Central point: Tent at Shiloh
• Serve --
Extermination of inhabitants -- irrevocable giving to God.
Gen 15:16 -- it is God's judgment not Israel's. Not
"Holy War" but "Jahweh War"
Not "arrested evolution in the ethical sphere" but
"anticipated eschatology" [words of Meredith Kline]
Not ethically subpar but the Day of the Lord in a
small form that will be realized in the full and complete sense at the
coming of the Lord.
remarks (slide 54)
Canaanization of Israel" Ps
106:34ff, Neh 9:27
Nature gods with emphasis on fertility.
Transition from sheep-herding to
tilling the soil. 2 K 13:23
B. Chronology - survey of the problem (slide 55-58)
C. The Ancient Near Eastern situation from
free from serious external forces
Period of Egyptian weakness -- lost control of their
holdings outside of Egypt
Hittite Empire also collapsed from enemies in Asia
Minor (Modern Turkey). Hittites gone by 1200
Assyria (Mesopotamia) also in a period of weakness.
D. The structure and content of Judges
1. The historical
background for the period to be described further in the book - Judges
the tribes went in to settle down in their possessions, most did not
follow up to conquer
2. The theological basis for the proper understanding
of the book of Judges - Judges 2:6-3:4
of turning away from the Lord, oppression (sometimes repentance), and
deliverance through judges.
from Theology of Judges: Commentators
have often suggested that this cycle is rebellion, retribution,
repentance, rescue. A closer look reveals that there is no mention in
this prolog of repentance.
3. The stories of the major and minor judges - Judges
3:5-16:31 (slide 59)
a. The major and
b. Brief comments on outstanding judges
1) Deborah and Barak
- Judges 4-5
2) Gideon - Judges 6-8
3) Jephthah - Judges 10:6-12:7
4) Samson - Judges 13:1-16:31 [handout
4. The spiritual and
moral deterioration in the time of the judges illustrated - Judges 17-21
a. Micah's private
sanctuary is robbed of its idols and priest- Judges 17-18
b. Civil war against Benjamin occasioned by the
sexual abuse and murder of a woman - Judges 19-21
Begin Audio Lecture 9b